THE `ABDALWD KINGDOM
OF TILIMSN


Situated in the west of the middle Maghrib, which is now Algeria, Tilimsn became the centre of an important state which lasted from 1238 to 1554. Its history illustrates the failure of attempts by outside superpowers to control the Maghrib, as once the Romans and Byzantines did, then the eastern caliphate, and later the Spanish and the Ottomans, before the French. Likewise it illustrates, during the periods of independence from outside control, the failure of attempts to put the whole Maghrib under one government and the typical and perhaps natural division of the Maghrib into three states, as we know it today.

The kingdom of Tilimsn was a kingdom of Arabized Berbers that rose from the ruins of the Muwaid empire. During the period of its existence it had to contend at home with a restless mostly Berber population, and abroad with the Marnids of Morocco and the afids of Tunisia. It finally fell victim to the power struggle between the Spanish and the Ottomans.

The `Abdalwd kingdom of Tilimsn has not received much scholarly attention. The Islamic dynasties of C.E. Bosworth does not even include its series of rulers. Our main primary sources are `Abdarramn ibn-Khaldn, al-`ibr wa-dwn al-mubtada' wa-l-khabar f ayym al-`Arab wa-l-`Ajam wa-l-Barbar, part 3 (Blq, 1867); see also the French translation Histoire des Berbres by Le Baron de Slane, newly edited by Paul Cassanova, vol. 3 (Paris: Geunthner, 1934); Yay ibn-Khaldn, Bughya ar-ruwwd f akhbr al-mulk min Ban-`Abdalwd, ed. & tr. by Alfred Bel, Histoire des Beni `Abd el-Wd, rois de Tlemcen, in three volumes (Algiers, 1904, 1911, 1913), and Muammad at-Tanas, Nam ad durr wa-l-iqyn f dawla Ban-Zayyn (Paris: Bibliothque Nationale, ms. 5173). None of these covers the entire period. Some 19th century French researchers did some work of unequal value, (1)while the 20th century has seen some important studies. (2) Other sources that are used are indicated as they come up. The Arabic sources tell their stories with much detail. My aim is to summarize the main political events, noting any discrepancies and utilized information discovered by later researchers, to present a coherent overall history of the `Abdalwd kingdom. The rich fic and theological aspects of this period are discussed in my Ph.D. thesis. (3) The political history of Tilimsn cannot be understood without situating it in the broader religious, social and political history of the Maghrib. I therefore first review the course of Maghrib politics from the establishment of Islam there before treating the Tilimsn kingdom according the its series of rulers.

Islamic states of the Maghrib before the rise of Tilimsn

Islam first appeared in North Africa with the raids of Ibn-ab-Sar in 646 and Mu`wiya b. Hudayj in 666, who ventured into Tunisia. Permanent occupation came in the time of the first Umayyad caliph, Mu`wiya, when in 670 `Uqba b. Nfi` founded Qayrawn in the middle of Tunisia, and from that beachhead struck across to the Atlantic. His victory, though spectacular, was only temporary. The Byzantines still held the coastal towns, while the sedentary Berbers, led by Kusayla, defeated and killed `Uqba in 683. In the meantime asan b. an-Nu`mn al-Ghassn drove the Byzantines from Carthage and in 702 defeated the nomadic Berber army led by the famous Khina ("priestess"). asan was then replaced by Ms b. Nuayr, who completed the subjection of the rest of North Africa, and the conquest was extended to Spain by riq in 709.

Initially this whole territory was governed from Qayrawn by a representative of the Umayyad caliphs in Damascus. The Umayyad policy of Arab supremacy over conquered non-Arabs,even though they became Muslim, provoked a new Berber revolt. It took the form of Khrijism, the movement which originated with the supporters of `Al who broke with him when he submitted to a negotiated abdication of the caliphate to Mu`wiyya. Their main tenets were that serious sins constitute a denial of the faith, and that all the faithful are equal, so that anyone, "even a black slave", could become caliph. Starting in Morocco in 739-40, the Berber Khrijites came near to sweeping all North Africa before them, but were defeated in attempting to take Qayrawn in 741. The Umayyad caliphate fell to their `Abbsids, based in Baghdad, in 749. The weakened government of Qayrawn fell to the Khrijites around 755. An army from Egypt under Ibn-al-Ash`ath retook it in 761, but it fell again in 771. The caliph's army came back in 772 under Yazd b. tim and secured Tunisia. The Khrijite centres of Jabal Nafsa, south of Tripoli, and Jard in southwest Tunisia were wiped out, but Khrijism continued in the kingdom of Thirt and in Sijilmsa (founded in 757). In the meantime, one li of the Barghwa tribe proclaimed himself the Mahd and began teaching a variant Islam of his own.

Khrijite power in the central Maghrib had to contend with two new centres of power. To the west, Idrs, the great-grandson of asan, son of `Al and Fima, founded a kingdom roughly corresponding with present-day Morocco; his son Idrs II founded its capital, Fez, in 808. To the east, Ibrhm b. Aghlab in 800 founded the Aghlabid dynasty based in Qayrawn, covering a territory somewhat wider than present-day Tunisia. The latter kingdom enjoyed the benefits of recognizing the `Abbsid caliph, but for all practical purposes was completely independent.

The Maghrib at this time, apart from political strife, was feverish with religious asceticism, holy men and theological controversy. The literalist thought of al-Ash`ar (d. 935) gained the upper hand over the Mu`tazilite teachings of the creation of the Qur'n, free will, symbolic interpretation of the Qur'n and the denial of distinct divine attributes as incompatible with God's unity. In the area of law too, the strict school of Mlik b. Anas (d. 795) won out over the rival school of Ab-anfa (d.c. 767), thanks to the efforts of Sann, author of the famous Mudawwana.

Towards the end of the ninth century the Fimid movement moved to the stage of North Africa. Ever since the fall of `Al, his partisans worked toward a restoration of his family to power. The Fimids are those Sh`ites who insist that the caliph must be or represent a descendant of `Al and his wife Fima, and not any other member of his wider family. Around 864 in Salamiya, near ma in Syria, `Ubaydallh issued his claim to the Fimid succession and sent propagandists to all parts to preach his cause. Of these, Ab-`Abdallh met in Mecca some pilgrims of the Kutma tribe who had come from the area just west of Constantine in Algeria. Coming back to Kutama country, he formed an army, marched into Ifrqiya (Tunisia) and drove out the Aghlabid amr. He then summoned `Ubaydallh, who came in 910 and took the titles al-Mahd ("the divinely guided") and amr al-mu'minn ("commander of the faithful"), and founded the city of Mahdiyya as his capital.

Al-Mahd extended his power as far east as Barka, but failed twice to take Egypt. Turning west, he defeated the Khrijite kingdom of Thirt in 911, then that of Sijilmsa With some difficulty he overthrew the Idrsids, but the Umayyads, who continued to rule in Spain after losing the caliphate in the East, were a source of harassment to the Fimids, especially by their alliance with the Zanta and other nomadic Berber tribes.

The son and successor of al-Mahd, Ab-l-Qsim al-Q'im (934-956), failed three times to take Egypt, and at home had to cope with rebellions because of his severity. A Khrijite resurgence, led by Ab-Yazd, a man from Jard of Zanta and Sudanese extraction, succeeded so far as to besiege the caliph in Mahdiyya in 945. But the Kutma and anhja tribes remained loyal, and by 947 the Khrijites were put down once and for all, although continuing to exist without power to this day at Jabal Nafsa, Jerba, Wargala, Ghardya and the Mzab region. Upon his success, the caliph Ism`l took the name al-Manr ("the one given victory") and built a new capital, Manuriyya, near Qayrawn.

Al-Manr's son, al-Mu`izz (953-975), in two campaigns pacified the whole Maghrib, giving it an unaccustomed spate of peace. His general, Jawhar, then satisfied Fimid ambition by conquering Egypt in 869. In 873 al-Mu`izz made Cairo his capital, where the Fimid caliphs reigned for two centuries. The Kutma contingent of the army were the caliphs' support in Egypt, while the anhja were left in charge of the Maghrib.

Bulukkn (974-984), whose father Zr had governed the middle Maghrib in the name of the caliph, was the first of the Zrid line of anhja governors of the Maghrib. Bulukkn guilt and governed for his father the three cities of Jaz'ir (Algiers), Miliyna and Mahdiyya. Upon becoming amr, he put down the ever reasserting independence of the western Maghrib and deported the entire population of Tilimsn to his own stronghold, Ashir. When he and his successors took up residence in Manriyya, the former capital of the caliph, the middle Maghrib capital of Ashir was left to the Ban-ammad branch of the anhja line which before long made themselves independent. The Zrid governor al-Mu`izz in 1017 failed to put down the rebels, and left matters as they were.

While breaking with the Zrid governors and the Fimid caliphs, the Ban-ammad recognized the fading `Abbsid caliphs. Popular orthodox reaction to Sh`ism in the Maghrib also forced al-Mu`izz to bread with the Fimid caliph, whereupon the Ban-ammad tried to switch allegiance back to the Fimids in order to claim authority over the whole Maghrib. To reduce the Maghrib to subjection, the Fimid caliphs decided to relieve upper Egypt of the troubles of the Arab tribe Ban-Hill and unleash them upon the Maghrib. From 1050 onwards they swept over Ifrqiya and the middle Maghrib "like a plague of locust, destroying everything in their way" (Ibn-Khaldn). Ifrqiya was left in anarchy while the Zrids took refuge in Mahdiyya. The Ban-ammad abandoned their capital for Bujya, which they had founded some years earlier.

While anarchy prevailed in the middle and eastern Maghrib, the Murbi (or "Almoravid") movement appeared in the west. Its protagonists were nomads of a Saharan anhja people converted to Islam in the 9th century. Toward the middle of the 11th century their chief Ab-`Abdallh Yay b. Ibrhm made a pilgrimage to Mecca, and on the way back in the area of southern Morocco engaged `Abdallh b. Ysn to teach his tribesmen Mlik law. With certain other tribal notables they established a rib (fort) on an island off Senegal. From this centre Ibn-Ysn, through his general Yay b. `Umar, conducted expeditions subjecting or raiding the desert tribes to the north and the blacks to the south. Yay died after taking Sijilmsa in 1055-6, and his brother Ab-Bakr took over command of the army. His deputy for the north, Ysuf ibn-Tashfn, founded the city of Marrkish in 1069, took Fez, Tilimsn Wahrn, Tanas, and was about to take Algiers when events in Spain diverted him.

The Umayyad dynasty in Spain had disappeared in 1034, leaving the debris of many small independent principalities. Into this Ferdinand I of Castile (d. 1065) and his successor Alfonso VI launched the reconquista. In desperation, al-Mu`tamid of Seville called for Ibn-Tshfn's help. In two expeditions, in 1086 and 1090, Ibn-Tshfn restored the situation, uniting Spain under his own authority except for Saragosa, which served as a buffer state. His son `Al inherited a vast state, but also the Murbi attitude of pious rusticity which restricted itself to the casuistry of Mlik law, repressing things like music and theological interpretation. But this attitude was ineffectual against the Spanish spirit, and Arab Spanish philosophy, theology, art and culture overflowed into the western Maghrib. Nevertheless the reconquista continued, and the Muslims fell once more into anarchy upon `Al's death in 1143.

In the meantime, in reaction both to the narrow Mlikism of the Murbis and the anhja domination of the Zanta, a new force was forming, the Muwaids (or "Almohads") = "those who profess the unity of God"). It was led by Ibn-Tmart, a theologian who believed in figurative interpretation of the Qur'n and the Mu`tazilite position on divine attributes, but otherwise was an Ash`arite. He held that the Murbi Mliks, whose literal interpretation of the Qur'n led them to anthropomorphism, were guilty of denial of the faith, and were therefore as legitimate object of jihd. Ibn-Tmart claimed the mission of a mahd, and took as his capital the strategic town of Tinmel, about 70 kilometres south-southwest of Marrkish, in 1125. With his general `Abdalmu'min, he combined military severity with popular propaganda in the Berber language to lay the foundations of a kingdom based on his ideology.

On Ibn-Tmart's death in c. 1128, `Abdalmu'min took the title of caliph or successor of Ibn-Tmart. Finishing the conquest of the Western Maghrib in 1146, he moved on to Spain and restored order there, putting it under his control. He then marched against the remains of the Ban-ammad kingdom in the east and took their capital Bujya in 1151, at the same time putting down the Ban-Hill Arabs in the area. He then moved into Ifrqiya, whose interior was prey to Hillian raids and whose coast was controlled by Roger II of Sicily. Ifrqiya was pacified and the Sicilian force gave up Mahdiyya, their last post, in 1160.

No more than any of their predecessors, could the Muwaids hold the Maghrib together. In Spain Ibn-Mardansh started a serious revolt against the Muwaids which was put down in 1161. From 1184 the whole middle and eastern Maghrib was in the hands of Arab and Berber bands under `Al b. Ghniya, with the approval of the `Abbsid caliphs. In Spain Alfonso VIII was on the move, but met defeat at Alrcos in 1196. The Muwaid caliph an-Nir (1199-1214) took advantage of the calm in Spain to bring Ifrqiya back into subjection, and established Ab-Muammad b. ab-af as governor.

Alfonso VIII then inflicted a serious defeat on an-Nir at Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212, which turned the tide against the Muwaids. Dynastic struggles and revolutions followed, during which Ferdinand III, by 1248, conquered all of Spain but Granada. In Ifrqiya the afid governor Ab-Zakariy' in 1228 made himself independent, taking Tunis for his capital in 1236-7. In Tilimsn Yaghmorsan b. Zayyn started the independent dynasty of Ban-`Abdalwd in 1235-6. In the western Maghrib the Marn tribe, which was growing in power since 1216, took most of the country of Fez during the reign of the Muwaid Sa`d (1242-1248), and in 1269 finished the Muwaid dynasty by taking Marrkish.

The Muwaid rule marked a high point in culture and learning in the western Maghrib. During their time lived the philosophers Ibn-ufayl (1100-1185) and Ibn-Rushd (1126-1198). Music flourished and many splendid architectural monuments were constructed.

The `Abdalwd/Zayyn dynasty of Tilimsn

Tilimsn is known commonly in the French from of Tlemcen. Three Arabic forms occur: 1) Tilimsn comes from the Berber Tilimsn, which is a combination of Tilim (joins) and sn (two), meaning that the city links the land and the sea, according to Ibn-Khaldn, although this is questionable, (4) 2) Talshn, a modified combination of tall (tel, or mound) and sha'n (importance), meaning an important place, 3) Tinimsn, a variation of the former. (5) There was a settlement there in Roman times, called Pomaria and it later was settled by Zanta Berbers. (6) It was ruled by a branch of the Idrsids until the Fimids took it over. It changed hands several times before passing to the Murbis. The Muwaid `Abdalmu'min destroyed the city and massacred its inhabitants in 1145, but later rebuilt it. With the destruction of Thirt, it became the most important city in the central Maghrib.

1) Ab-Yay Yaghmorsan b. Zayyn b. Thbit b. M. (1239-1283)

This Berber name, sometimes appearing in the form "Ghamorsan", is composed of two Berber words: Yaghmor or Ghamor (claw) and san or assan (their), meaning that he is the claw or defender of the tribe. (7) Yay ibn-Khaldn gives 603 or 604 H. (1206-9) as the date of Yaghmorsan's birth. (8) His descendants are known from their ancestor as the Ban-Zayyn; they belonged to the nomad tribe of `Abdalwd, which was a branch of the Zanta. Attempts to attach the Zayyn ancestry to Muammad or even to Arab stock, as was done by the obsequious at-Tanas, (9) are, as Ibn-Khaldn previously observed, fictitious. (10) According to at-Tanas, (11) Yahgmorsan took advantage of the Muwaid weakness to lead his tribesmen into the Tilimsn region, exacting yearly tax from the local people and obedience to their tribal chief (kabr-him) Jbir b. Ysuf b. Muammad, who was a relative of Yahgmorsan. (12)

At that time the Muwaid governor of Tilimsn was Ab-Sa`d `Uthmn b. Ya`qb al-Manr, brother of al-Ma'mn Idrs b. al-Manr, who was the Muwaid puppet of Ferdinand III. This Ab-Sa`d imprisoned some chiefs of the Ban-`Abdalwd and refused the request of some Murbi partisans in Tilimsn for their release. Angered at the refusal, they broke open the prison, releasing the Ban-`Abdalwd notables, and imprisoned Ab-Sa`d in their place, in 624/ 1227. The Murbi upstarts broke with their Muwaid overlord and planned a restoration of the Murbi empire. Seeing that the Ban-`Abdalwd leadership opposed their design, their chief invited the Ban-`Abdalwd chief Jbir to a feast at which he planned to kill him. Arriving at the gate of Tilimsn, Jbir became wise to the plot, killed the Murbi chief, and proclaimed the authority of the Muwaid caliph al-Ma'mn, who recognized him as his amr of Tilimsn.

Jbir was killed by an arrow while besieging a town in the course of consolidating his kingdom. His son al-asan succeeded him, but after six months abdicated in deference to his uncle `Uthmn. `Uthmn poorly administered the government, and was driven from Tilimsn in disgrace. Ab-`Izza Zayyn b. Zayyn was elected in his place, but was killed in putting down the revolt of the B. Mahar and B. Rshid. Yahgmorsan was then proclaimed king. This was in 633/ 1235, according to Ibn-Khaldn, but 7 Jum. II 637/ 4 Jan. 1240 according to at-Tanas. (13) The latter date may refer to his declaration of independence from the Muwaid caliph, to whom Yahgmorsan remained faithful initially. Ibn-Khaldn does mention only good relations with the Muwaid caliph, Rashd, and says nothing about a break. The caliph at this time was Rashd `Abdalwid b. Idrs al-Ma'mn, who sent Yaghmorsan a magnificent present in the hopes that Yaghmorsan would continue to recognize him and name him in the public Friday prayer. Yaghmorsan refused, and ar-Rashd meant to march against him, but was prevented from doing so by his death in 1247 (sic, Julien). Nor was ar-Rashd's successor, his brother as-Sa`d (124248) in a position to make any opposition.

After some time Ab-Zakariy' b. `Abdalwid a. Ja`far al-Hasht of Tunis sent a gift to Sa`d, thinking he was still master of the whole Maghrib. Yaghmorsan judged the present his own by right and laid hold of it. Ab-Zakariy' waited for Sa`d to react to this insult and, when he did not, declared himself independent and moved with an army against Tilimsn in 639/ 1241-2. As he laid siege to the city, Yaghmorsan fled to the mountains of the B. Warnd. Ab-Zakariy' entered the city and looked for a governor of the city from among his officers, but they all refused. He then declared that "Tilimsn should have no other master but the one it wants", (14) and so made up with Yaghmorsan, combining with him against the Muwaids.

When the Muwaid caliph Sa`d found out about the combination against him, he formed an army which his rivals, the B. Marn, joined, and they marched against Tilimsn. At their coming, Yaghmorsan fled to a castle at Tmzzdt, which Sa`d besieged. In the battle to take this castle, on Tuesday at the end of afar 646/ June 1248, Sa`d was killed and his head was sent to his mother by Yaghmorsan. One prize of the battle was a copy of the Qur'n reputed to have belonged to `Uthmn b. `Affn, which was later taken by the Marnids to Fez. (15)

Yaghmorsan consolidated his power by expeditions in the surrounding territory, particularly against the Tujjn and Maghrwa Berber tribes. On 25 Rab` II 652/ 14 June 1254 some European mercenaries in the service of Yaghmorsan plotted with his brother Muammad to kill the king. The plot failed, and the Europeans killed Muammad, missing the king. The European troops were then massacred to a man. (16)

The Marnid dynasty, now established in Morocco, rivaled and was in frequent conflict with the `Abdalwds of Tilimsn. They defeated Yaghmorsan many times and in afar 673/ Aug.-Sept. 1274 they took Sijilmsa from his control. They twice besieged Tilimsn itself but could not take it.

Yaghmorsan married his son Ab-mir (17) to the daughter of Ab-Isaq ab-Zakariy' of Tunis, but on the way back with the princess he died on 29 Dh-l-Qa`da 681/ 27 Feb. 1283 at the age of 76, having reigned 44 years, 5 months and 12 days.

2. Ab-Sa`d `Uthmn b. Yaghmorsan (1283-1304)

Returning from Tunis, Ab-`mir concealed his father's death, saying that he was ill in his litter, until he reached Tilimsn territory, where he met his brother Ab-Sa`d, who was then proclaimed successor to his father. (18) Ab-Sa`d extended his power eastward, even raiding the neighbourhood of Bujya, which belonged to Tunis. In the same year and the next he carried on expeditions against the Maghrwa, taking their town of Mzna, and the Tujjn, taking their fortresses of Taferjennit, (19) and the Wanshars. Then he welcomed into Tilimsn Ab-`mir `Abdallh An'jub, the fugitive son of Ab-Ya`qb Ysuf of Fez, who had conspired with the wazr Ibn-`Aw against his father. In Rab` II 688/ April-May 1289 he took the Maghrwa town of Tanas and the Tujjn town of Almedesh. The same year the traveller Ab-M. al-Adbar visited Tilimsn and noted the magnificence of its buildings but the utter poverty of the people. (20)

In 689/1290 the ruler of Tunis sent a gift to Ab-Sa`d, hoping to assure peace with him. Later that year Ab-Ya`qb Ysuf of Fez, angered because of Ab-Sa`d's welcome to his rebellious son, marched against Tilimsn, but retired without taking it. Ab-Sa`d thereupon punished the Maghrwa and the Tujjn who had revolted in this crisis. The remaining years of Ab-Sa`d's reign were occupied in putting down rebellious subject tribes and in repelling the expeditions of Ab-Ya`qb Ysuf. The latter in all made five expeditions against Tilimsn; in the last one he constructed a town which he named Manra, just outside Tilimsn, and began a long siege of Tilimsn, during which Ab-Sa`d died on 1 Dh-l-Q. 703/ 5 June 1304, after ruling twenty-one years less one month.

3. Ab-Zayyn M. b. ab-Sa`d (1304-13)

Born in 659/ 1260, (21) Ab-Zayyn succeeded his father and lived through the long and bitter siege of Tilimsn. (22) The siege was lifted after eight years and three months by the dagger of a eunuch named Sa`da who had once belonged to the kindly and learned Ab-`Ab l-Malyn. Ab-Ya`b Ysuf had killed the latter and taken all his goods, including the eunuch. The latter ended his second master's life while he was sleeping on Wednesday 7 Dh-l-Q. 706/ 10 May 1307. (23)

Ab-Slim, Ab-Ya`qb Ysuf's son by a concubine, claimed his father's throne, but his nephew Ab-Thbit, son of the Ab-`mir who had been given asylum in Tilimsn, with the connivance of Ab-Zayyn, overthrew his uncle and made peace with Ab-Zayyn, restoring to him all his territory. Ab-Zayyn then turned eastward and subjected the rebellious Maghrwa and Tujjn tribes. The future looked bright when he returned to Tilimsn and died on 22 Shawwl 707/ 5 April 1308, after ruling seven days less than four years.

4. Ab-amm Ms (1308-1318)

The brother and close associate of Ab-Zayyn, Ab-amm, succeeded him and continued in the direction of prosperity and expansion begun by his brother. In 712/ 1312-13 he annexed Algiers, which had been an independent city for fourteen years after breaking with Tunis. (24) In 714, leaving his son Ab-Tshfn in charge of Tiliimsn, Ab-amm led an expedition against a rebel named Rshid b. Rshid b. M. of the Maghrwa tribe. The latter fled to Bujya, which was under Tunisian control. Ab-amm then sent his cousin Mas`d b. ab-`mir b. Yaghmursan and Muammad b. Ysuf b. Yaghmursan to besiege Bujya and reduce the country beyond it to subjection. At the same time he sent Ms b. `Al al-Ghuzz (25) with an Arab army to subdue the desert area.

The two generals fell out with one another, and Ab-amm sided with Mas`d, sending M. b. Ysuf back to Tilimsn and dispatching separate orders to his son Ab-Tshfn to imprison M. b. Ysuf. Ab-Tshfn refused, and sent M. b. Ysuf back to the army. After this Ab-amm acted coolly towards his son and gave preference to Mas`d. Consequently Ab-Tshfn conspired against his father and, surprising him with an armed band, killed him on 22 Jumda 718/ 22 July 1318. (26)

5. Ab-Tshfn (1318-1337)

Under Ab-Tshfn, born in 692/ 1293,(27) the prosperity of the preceding reign continued, especially in building projects, in which the skills of many European slaves were employed. (28) The first military enterprise of Ab-Tshfn was to put down the revolt of Muammad b. Ysuf. In the east he renewed the siege of Bujya, Bna and Constantine, while his generals Yay b. Ms al-ajj and Ibn-Ab-`mrn al-af took Tunis itself. (29) In these straits, the Tunisian amr Ab-Yay Ab-Bakr appealed to Ab-Sa`d of Fez for help, and offered his daughter in marriage to Ab-Sa`d's son Ab-l-asan.

Ab-Sa`d agreed and sent and ambassador to Ab-Tshfn asking him to raise the siege of Bujya, but no result was achieved. Ab-Sa`d then died and was succeeded by Ab-l-asan, who also sent ambassadors for the same purpose; the ambassadors were chased away dishonourably. Because of this and because of Ab-Tshfn's assistance to rebels in Marnid territory, Ab-l-asan decided to move against Tilimsn. While he was conquering the western territories of Tilimsn, the amr of Tunis rallied and attacked from the east. A revolt of Ab-l-asan's brother at Sijilmsa delayed matters a while, but the war continued until Tilimsn was taken and Ab-Tshfn and his family were killed, on 28 Raman 737/ 30 April 1337.

6. Ab-Sa`d (1348-)

The Ban-`Abdalwd dynasty was ended for the time being. `Uthmn b. Yay b. M. b. Jarrr, a protg of Ab-l-asan, ruled as his representative, while scions of another branch of the `Abdalwd family, the brothers Ab-Sa`d and Ab-Thbit b. ab-Zayd b. ab-Zakariy' b. Yaghmursan, marched with Ab-l-asan against Tunis. They took Tunis and were about to attack Qayrawn when Ab-Sa`d and Ab-Thbit and their troops went over to the enemy and defeated Ab-l-asan on 10 Muarram 749/ 10 April 1348. Thereupon, in Rab` I 749/ May-June 1348, Ab-Sa`d was proclaimed amr and went back to Tilimsn with his followers, joined by the Tujjn and Maghrwa tribesmen. After winning a battle against `Uthmn b. Jarrr's forces, they entered the town on 22 Jumda II of the same year/ 17 Sept. 1348. (30)

Ab-l-asan rallied and landed by sea at Algiers, where the Arabs of the locale and the Tujjn tribe joined him to retake Tilimsn. But Ab-Thbit, brother of the sovereign of Tilimsn and in charge of the army, went out, joined by troops of the Maghrwa tribe, and defeated Ab-l-asan.

A while later an incident occurred between some members of the Maghrwa and the B. `Abdalwd tribes, because of which Ab-Thbit started a campaign against the Maghrwa. Ab-`Inn, son of Ab-asan and new sovereign of Morocco, protested against Ab-Thbit's action and, when his protest was disregarded, he marched against Tilimsn. The Tilimsn sovereign Ab-Sa`d was killed in battle on 11 Jumda I 753/ 25 June 1352.

Ab-Thbit retreated with the remainder of the army to Algiers but was pursued. Finally, in an attempt to flee to the east disguised and accompanied only by his wazr and two nephews, he was captured near Bujya, taken to Tilimsn and handed over to Ab-`Inn to the B. Jarrr tribe, who killed him in revenge for the death of `Uthmn b. Jarrr, the former governor of Tilimsn. (31)

7. Ab-amm Ms II (1359-1389)

When Ab-Thbit was captured, his nephew Ab-amm, whose father Ab-Ya`qb (d. 763/ 1361-2) (32) led a fic life away from the political life of his two brothers, managed to escape to Tunis, where he was treated royally by Ab-Isq, the afid sovereign. There he gathered supporters and returned to conquer Tilimsn on 8 Rab` I 760/ 6 Feb. 1359.

In 761/ 1359-60 the Moroccan sultan Ab-Slim marched against Tilimsn. Ab-amm fled the city, which was taken, but after a few weeks Ab-amm regained it and the rest of his territory that the Marnids had occupied. He restored many of the buildings which had been ruined in this and previous Moroccan occupations and built a school, al-Madrasa al-Ya`qbiyya in honour of his father, and put Ab-`Abdallh b. Amad al-asan in charge of it. (33)

Ab-amm had many children; eight of his sons were to occupy his throne for various lengths of time. In 776/ 1374-5 a severe famine hit the land. Ab-amm had to face much opposition, particularly from an `Abdalwd pretender, Ab-Zayyn, who was supported first by the Marnids and then by the afids. The Marnid sultan `Abdal`azzz conquered Tilimsn on 1 Muarram 771/ 4 Aug. 1370, took over all the `Abdalwd territory and put Ab-amm to flight. The death of `Abdal`azzz at the end of Rab` II 774/ Oct. 1372 permitted Ab-amm to recover his kingdom and return to Tilimsn. Ab-amm's restoration did not spare him the struggle with the continual rebellion of Arab and Berber tribes. His own son Ab-Tshfn `Abdarramn killed the royal secretary, Yay ibn-Khaldn, a crime which Ab-amm overlooked. Incursions into Morocco invited the reprisal of the Marnid sultan Ab-l-`Abbs, who came and occupied Tilimsn. A coup in Fez in 786/ 1384 forced Ab-l-`Abbs to abandon Tilimsn to Ab-amm, but not before he wrecked the splendid palace built by Spanish artisans.

At the end of 788/ Jan. 1387 Ab-Tashfn `Abdaramn overthrew his father and imprisoned him in Algiers. Ab-amm escaped and retook Tilimsn, but Ab-Tshfn captured his father once more and, to get rid of him, sent him on a pilgrimage to Mecca. Going by sea, Ab-amm disembarked at Bujya and, gathering an army, doubled back to Tilimsn, entering it in 790/ 1388. Ab-Tshfn fled to the sultan of Fez, and returned with an army. In the battle which took place towards the end of 791/ Sept. 1389 Ab-amm was killed at the age of 68, having ruled 31 years. (34)

8. Ab-Tshfn `Abdarramn (1389-1392)

In return for the help of the Moroccan sultan Ab-l-`Abbs, Ab-Tshfn was obliged to place the former's name in the Friday prayers and pay him a yearly tribute.

Before long, Ab-Tshfn's brother Ab-Zayyn began attacking him, and in Rajab 792/ May-June 1390 besieged him in Tilimsn. A Moroccan force came to the relief, and Ab-Zayyn fled to Ab-l-`Abbs in Fez. The Marnid sultan's favour passed to Ab-Zayyn and sent him with an army to take Tilimsn when Ab-Tashfn died on 17 Rab` II 795/ 2 March 1393, having ruled three years, four months and sixteen days.

The sultan Ab-l-`Abbs then sent Ab-Zayyn to Fez, while the Sultan's son Ab-Fris led the Moroccan army into Tilimsn, proclaiming the sovereignty of his father, once more putting a stop to the dynasty of Ban-`Abdalwd.

9. Ab-Thbit Ysuf b. ab-Tshfn (1393)

The Marnid rulers held Tilimsn for about one year, until Muarram 796/ Nov.-Dec. 1393, when Ab-Fris was called back to take the Moroccan throne in place of his deceased father Ab-l-`Abbs. Then Tilimsn regained its independence. The new ruler, Ab-Thbit, however, was poisoned after forty days by his uncle Ab-l-ajjj.

10. Ab-l-ajjj Ysuf b. ab-amm (1393-1394)

The new ruler took power at the end of Jumda I 796/ early |April 1399, and after ten months, in Rab` I 797/ Dec. 1394- Jan. 1395, was expelled by the troops of Fez, who installed his brother Ab-Zayyn.

11. Ab-Zayyn b. ab-amm (1394-1399)

The five year reign of Ab-Zayyn under the shadow of the Marnids of Fez was peaceful and marked with some flourishing of learning. He founded and made liberal provision for the library of the great mosque. In 801/ 1388-9 he was driven out by his brother Ab-Muammad and wandered in search of asylum until he was killed in 805/ 1402-3. This is the last person mentioned by Ibn-Khaldn and his information on him is brief. Ibn-Khaldn passes over the previous two brief rulers.

12. Ab-Muammad `Abdallh b. ab-amm (1399-1401)

It was not long before this ruler too came under the intrigues of the men who surrounded him. They appealed to Fez, and troops came towards the end of 804/1402 to replace Ab-Muammad with his brother Ab-`Abdallh.

13. Ab-`Abdallh Muammad b. ab-amm al-Wthiq bi-llh ibn-Khawla (1402-1411)

Little is known of this reign, except that learning once more began to flourish with the relative peace prevalent during it. His happy reign terminated with his natural death on 7 Dh-l-Q. 813/ 3 March 1411.

14. `Abdarramn b. ab-`Abdallh Muammad ibn-Khawla (1411-1412)

After only two months and a few days' reign, as-Sa`d, the uncle of `Abdarramn, escaped from the prison where the Marnids held him, and attacked his nephew and deposed him at the end of Muarram 814/ May 1411.

15. As-Sa`d b. ab-amm (1411)

This ruler dissipated the wealth of Tilimsn by gifts to his friends and mismanagement. Accordingly, the next sultan of Fez intervened, sending as-Sa`d's brother Ab-Mlik `Abdalwid with an army against him. Thus after a six months' rule, as-Sa`d was deposed.

16. Ab-Mlik `Abdalwid b. a. amm (1412-1424; 1428-30) (35)

Ab-Mlik entered Tilimsn on 16 Rajab 814/ 3 Nov. 1411. His reign was distinguished by prosperity at home and the restoration of his dynasty's power in the land about. He even succeeded in placing his candidate, Muammad (or Amad) b. ab-Muammad b. ab-arq b. ab-`Inn, on the throne of Fez, giving him military support to win control of the whole western Maghrib.

Ab-Mlik's reign was interrupted by Tunisian intervention. Ab-Fris, the afid Sultan of Tunis, who regarded Tilimsn as his dependency, deposed him on the grounds of fiscal maladministration. Ab-Fris defeated the army sent out by Ab-Mlik and when he approached Tilimsn Ab-Mlik fled. On 13 Jum. II 827/ 12 May 1424 Ab-Fris entered Tilimsn and appointed Ab-Mlik's nephew to his place. After going west and gaining the submission of Fez, Ab-Fris returned to Tunis. (36)

17. Ab-`Abdallh M. b. a. Tshfn, known as Ibn-al-umra (1424-1428; 1430-31

Ab-`Abdallh, the new ruler, soon became estranged with his master Ab-Fris, who was occupied with war with the Europeans. (37) In the meantime, the deposed Ab-Mlik failed to get help from Fez, and turned to Ab-Fris who had deposed him, sending him his son as an envoy and letters to sell his cause. Ab-Fris was won over and gave the young man every honour, but on his way back Ab-Mlik's son was captured and killed by Ab-`Abdallh. Ab-Mlik himself then went to Tunis with a forged letter from his minister (jib) Ibn-ab-mid saying that the people of Tilimsn are eager for Ab-Mlik's restoration, and obtained from Ab-Fris a small army to send against Ab-`Abdallh. In the engagement Ab-Mlik lost, and as he had foreseen, Ab-Fris himself came out to defend his honour. Ab-Fris placed Ab-Mlik back in power over Tilimsn in Rajab 831/ April-May 1428. Ab-Fris had no sooner departed than Ab-`Abdallh raised an army in the mountains, came down and retook Tilimsn on 4 Dh-l-Q. 833/ 25 July 1430. The next day Ab-Mlik was discovered and killed. (38)

Ab-`Abdallh's was a short victory. On hearing the news, Ab-Fris sent his army back and besieged Ab-`Abdallh in the mountain fortress to which he had fled only eighty-four days after his restoration. Ab-`Abdallh gave himself up, and was brought a prisoner to Tunis, where he died in 840/ 1436-7. (39) In his place it seems that Ab-Fris appointed a European mercenary, whom he left to govern for seven months before appointing a man from the traditional ruling house. (40)

During his rule, Ab-`Abdallh courted the favour of the theologian and f, Muammad ibn-Ysuf as-Sans, but the latter refused his gifts and avoided familiarity with him, even sheltering in his house fugitives from Ab-`Abdallh's judicial proceedings. (41)

18. Ab-l-`Abbs A. b. a. Ms (1431-1475)

Appointed by Ab-Fris, Ab-l-`Abbs took over Tilimsn on 1 Rajab 834/ 15 March 1431. (42) The beginning of his reign was marked with energy in endowing religious schools, punishing criminals and establishing order and security in his domains. At-Tanas adds: "He had the greatest veneration for the wal, the holy man, the polar star of his time, the powerful intercessor, the shaykh of ascetics and model of pious men, Sayyid asan b. Makhlq [Abarkn]. He paid him frequent visits, made use of his advice and placed most of his affairs under his direction." (43)

In 837/ 1433-4, seeing Tunis threatened by the Europeans, Ab-l-`Abbs declared himself independent. Ab-Fris started off against him, but died before he could get there. (44)

Another threat came from Ab-l-`Abbs' brother Ab-Yay. In 838/ 1434-5 the latter mustered a force and marched upon Tilimsn. Failing to take it, he established himself in Wahrn (Oran). There were many battles between him and his brother until the month of Sha`bn 852/ Oct. 1448, when Ab-l`Abbs' army took Wahrn by storm.

In the meantime, a member of another branch of the family, Ab-Zayyn M. al-Musta`n bi-llh, left Tunis with an army and took Algiers on 19 Rajab 842/ 4 Jan. 1439. Ab-Zayyn was assassinated but the population of Algiers on 2 Shawwl 843/ 7 March 1440, but his son al-Mutawakkil continued the conquest as far west as Wahrn. Tilimsn was weakening. Although an insurrection which took place in the city on 27 Ram. 850/ 16 Dec. 1446 was unsuccessful, the regional chiefs and nomadic Arabs dependent on Tilimsn proceeded to revolt, leaving the region in anarchy. Into this situation al-Mutawakkil moved his army, taking milyna, Mustaghnam, Tamzaghrn, Wahrn, and finally Tilimsn on 1 Jum. I 866/ 1 Feb. 1462. Ab-l-`Abbs was exiled to Granada.

19. Ab-`Al. M. al-Mutawakkil `al llh b. a. Zayyn M. b. a. Thbit b. a. Tshfn b. a. amm Ms (II) b. a. Yq. b. a. Zayd b. Zk. b. a. Yy. Yaghmursan (1462-1473)

Only a few months after taking over Tilimsn, al-Mutawakkil had to face a. `Amr `Uthmn of Tunis before the gates of Tilimsn. He accepted the overlordship of `Uthmn, who then went away. (45) Soon afterwards the deposed Ab-l-`Abbs returned from Spain with an army and besieged Tilimsn for fourteen days before he was killed, on 13 Dh-l-. 867/ 29 Aug. 1463. The partisans of Ab-l-`Abbs then rallied around another leader, M. b. `Ar. b. a. `Uth. b. a. Tshfn, and tried again to take Tilimsn, but failed. Another rebellious and marauding chieftain, M. b. Ghliya, was defeated on 13 Shawwl 868/ 19 June 1465, and his head brought to Tilimsn. (46)

Al-Mutawakkil tried to rule as independently as he could, but trembled and showed submission any time `Uthmn seemed to be on the move. At the end of Jum. II 868/ mid-Feb. 1464, the Q of Tilimsn, M. b. A. al-`Uqbn (47) arrived on one of his missions to Tunis, bringing a present from al-Mutawakkil to `Uthmn. In Dh-l-Q./ July-Aug. of the same year `Uthmn sent a gift in return.

Then, towards the middle of 870/ early 1466, a deputation of Arabs from the country of Tilimsn came to Tunis and alleged that al-Mutawakkil had thrown off his allegiance and was plotting with certain nomadic tribes. They asked to have Ab-Jaml Zayyn b. `Abdalwid b. a. amm as their ruler instead. The caliph agreed, and equipped the new leader with an army, which went victoriously westward until it began the siege of Tilimsn in Rab` II 871/ Nov.Dec. 1466. The first day a violent battle ensued, which was stopped by nightfall. The besiegers planned to take the city the next day, but were prevented from acting by a heavy rain. Then the Shaykh al-. Abarkn (48) and the qd (49) came out with a document of submission signed by al-Mutawakkil. The treaty made was reinforced by al-Mutawakkil's giving his daughter to `Uthmn's son. `Uthmn then turned back, leaving on 7 Sha`bn 871/ 14 March 1467. (50)

Perhaps associated with the massacre of Jews in Fez at the end of 870/ July 1466, on the occasion of the overthrow of `Abdalaqq b. Sa`d, who had favoured them and given them positions of authority, was a bloody persecution of the Jews of Tilimsn in 1467. (51) No other event is noted until the death of al-Mutawakkil in afar 873/ July-Aug. 1468. (52)

20. Ab-Tshfn (II) (1468)

Ab-Tashfn, the elder son of al-Mutawakkil, succeeded him, but help power only forty days, or four months according to others, when he was deposed by his brother. (53)

21. Ab-`Abdallh M. ath-Thbit b. al-Mutawakkil (1468-1504)

The brother of the former, Ab-`Abdallh continued in power until 910/ 1504. (54) In the first year of his reign he compelled the famous writer al-Wanshars (55) to flee from Tilimsn. During Ab-`Abdallh's reign the theologian and f Muammad ibn-Ysuf as-Sans flourished and died, on 10 May 1490. The following comment of his reflects the situation of this time:

The most important thing an intelligent and discerning person can do in this difficult time is to pursue the things by which he may save his soul from an eternity in fire. That he can do only by being convinced of the dogmas professing God's unity, as has been established by the imms of the Sunna people, who know what is best. How rare they are who have such conviction in this difficult time wherein the sea of ignorance overflows, and falsehood has spread beyond limits and thrown in every direction of the earth waves of denial of the truth, hatred for those who hold the truth, and colouring over of falsehood with deceptive trappings." (56)

No other events are recorded for ab-`Abdallh's rule while as-Sans lived. Yet it can only have been one of gradual decline. The Spanish and Portuguese were advancing from the West. The last king of Granada, Ab-`Abdallh Muammad, surrendered to Ferdinand on 6 Jan. 1492, and shortly after went to Wahrn and then to Tilimsn, where he died on 1 Sha`bn 899/ 7 May 1494. (57) At the same the Turks were advancing from the East.

After the fall of Granada the ports of the Maghrib increased their pirate activity in the Mediterranean and their raids upon European coasts. In reaction, the European powers moved to capture the ports from which these raids originated. In 1501 the Portuguese tried but failed to capture Mars al-Kabr around Wahrn. But in 1505 Mars al-Kabr fell to the Spanish, and the troops sent to the rescue by Muammad ath-Thbit arrived too late and were put to flight and their supplies captured.

Because of these events Muammad ath-Thbit's character seems to have changed to one of despondency, manifested in sudden excesses of cruelty or plunging into the distractions of magic or the company of his friends. He was finally killed by his brothers. (58)

22. Ab-`Abdallh Muammad b. M. ath-Thbit (1504-1516)

During the reign of this sovereign pirate activity continued in the Mediterranean from his only remaining port, Wahrn, until 18 May 1509, when the Spanish captured it. (59) Ab-`Abdallh went out with an army to rescue Wahrn, but was afraid to fight and turned back. The Tilimsn people vented their frustration by massacring the Europeans settled in their midst. The loss of Wahrn also meant the end of the commerce which was the source of the prosperity of Tilimsn. From then on heavy taxes and austerities made `Abdallh's rule unpopular. As a last resort, he went personally to Spain in 1512 to negotiate with his enemies. He was received in Burgos by Ferdinand, and agreed to be his vassal and pay an annual tribute.

On the occasion of Ab-`Abdallh's death in 923/ 1517 the people of Tilimsn raided the homes of the Jews living there, reducing them to a long and lasting misery. (60)

In the meantime Spanish occupation of the Maghrib ports, including the island of Peñon in the bay of Algiers, had led the Algerians to appeal to the Turks for help. The pirate `Arj came to Algiers in 1515, took over the city and expanded his power over much of the surrounding territory.

23. Ab-amm III, b. al-Mutawakkil (1516-1528)

This uncle of the preceding ruler came to power after deposing the latter's brother Ab-Zayyn. He moved to consolidate his power by renewing the vassalship relationship of his predecessor with Charles V of Spain. Ab-amm's nephew, who had plotted against him but failed and fled, was set up in Tanas with the help of the Spanish, since Ab-amm failed to help the Spanish in their abortive attempt to take Algiers. From Algiers, `Arj's brother Khayraddn drove him out, but he returned. Then `Arj himself marched against Tanas and took it, and from there turned upon Tilimsn. The shaykhs and the people welcomed `Arj as a deliverer from the unpopular Ab-amm but, on taking Tilimsn, the Turks cruelly killed anyone they could lay hands on who was associated with Ab-amm and forbade any of the indigenous people to trade with the Spanish in their port cities, hoping thereby to starve out the Spanish and also complete the conquest of the kingdom of Tilimsn.

Ab-amm, who had fled to Fez before Tilimsn fell, negotiated with the Spanish in Wahrn and in Spain, promising to return to obedience to the Spanish king if he helped him recover Tilimsn. Agreement was reached, and an army of Europeans and Muslims relieved the land blockade of Wahrn, moved on to take Tilimsn and totally defeated and killed `Arj in July 1518. Ab-amm returned to power under the aegis of the Spanish crown, to which he seems to have remained loyal until his death in 1528.

24. Ab-Muammad `Abdallh b. al-Mutawakkil (1528-1540)

This brother of the former ruler changed alliances from the Spanish to the Turks in Algiers, who had gained the recognition and support of the Ottoman sultan. This action drew no reprisals, because the Spanish were occupied elsewhere at the time.

25. Ab-Zayyn Amad b. ab-Muammad `Abdallh (1540-1550)

This younger son of the preceding ruler succeeded in preventing his elder brother Ab-`Abdallh from inheriting the throne. The latter fled to Wahrn and won the help of the Spanish. In a first attempt to defeat his brother the Spanish army which supported him was totally defeated. In 1543 Charles V sent fresh troops, and this time they succeeded.

Ab-Zayyn fled from Tilimsn, and the Spanish army occupied it, pillaging and killing the people, while installing Ab-`Abdallh on the throne. Ab-Zayyn fled to the west, gathered an army and came back to besiege Tilimsn. Ab-`Abdallh went out and put him to flight once more, but upon returning found the city gates locked against him. Abandoned by his followers, he fled to the wilds where he was killed, while Ab-Zayyn was recalled to the throne at the end of 1543 or the beginning of 1544.

Ab-Zayyn allied himself with the Turks of Algiers, who had been successful in repelling Charles V's attempt to take Algiers in 1541. His reign lasted from 947-957/ 1540-1550.

26. asan b. ab-Muammad `Abdallh (1550-1554)

During the reign of this brother of the preceding ruler three forces were threatening the small kingdom of Tilimsn: the Turks in Algiers, the Spanish in Wahrn, and the new Moroccan dynasty of Sharfs. The latter overran Tilimsn, but were driven out by the Turks, who set up a garrison in Tilimsn under the guise of protecting it against further attacks from Morocco.

The Turkish rule became odious, and asan appealed to the Spanish in Wahrn for help. His appeal was discovered by the Turks, who assembled all the shaykhs, who officially deposed him. In 1555 li Ra's Pasha took possession of Tilimsn in the name of the Ottoman emperor Salm II. asan died shortly afterwards in Wahrn. His son became a Christian and went to live in Spain. Thus the dynasty of Ban-`Abdalwd came to an end.

Some teachers and fs of the `Abdalwd period of Tilimsn (61)

Muammad ibn-Ysuf as-Sans (d. 10 May 1490), mentioned above, was the most famous Tilimsn theologian.

Al-Qalad, author of many books and a master of as-Sans, taught in Tilimsn from 1427 to 1447.

Abarkn, mentioned above, was a famous f and master of as-Sans and died in November 1453. His advice and blessing was sought by Ab-`Abdallh and Ab-Fris, but he refused gifts from these rulers and kept his independence.

At-Tanas, a historian of this period, died in Meb.-March 1494.

Al-Wanshars, an important historian, lived in Tilimsn until 11 July 1469, when he fell out with the ruler ath-Thbit and had to flee to Fez; there he died in 1508 at the age of around 80.

Ibn-Marzq (al-kaff), was the father of a family of learned men famous through North and West Africa; he died in 1495/6.

NOTES

1. Note particularly two pertinent books of J.J.L. Bargs, Histoire des Beni-Zeiyan, rois de Tlemcen (Paris, 1852) and Complment de l'histoire des Beni-Zeiyan (Paris, 1887); these works are very uncritical from the point of view of transliteration, consistency of facts and dates, and citation of sources. Yet they supply some information from now untraceable manuscripts, particularly an appendix to Yay ibn-Khaldn, which cannot be otherwise found.

2. See especially Georges Marçais, "La Berbrie du VIIe au XVIe sicle," confrence faite la sance d'ouverture du Deuxime Congrs nationale des Sciences Historiques, Alger, 14 avril 1930, in Mlanges d'histoire et d'archologie de l'occident musulmane, v. 1, Articles et confrences de Georges Marçais (Algiers, 1957), pp. 17-22; "Abd-al-Wdids," EI2 , Tlemcen (Paris, 1950).

3. J. Kenny, Muslim theology as presented by M. ibn-Ysuf as-Sans, especially in his al-`Aqda al-wus (University of Edinburgh, 1970).

4. See Histoire des Berbres, III, p. 334 and note 3.

5. Cf. Bargs, Histoire, lix-lx, who follows Ab-`Abdallh al-Abbelli (see Histoire des Berbres, III, p. 36), the teacher of the two Ibn-Khaldns,for the first two forms, and a ms by Yy. b. Khaldn, Bughya ar-ruwwd, fol. 20r, and "Meracid el Ittil, ms. of the Bibliothque Nationale, suppl. arabe, n. 891, p. 134" for the third.

6. Cf. O. MacCarthy, on p. 33, note 1, of Ibn-Khaldn, Histoire des Berbres, t. 3.

7. Cf. Bargs, Complment, p. 5, note.

8. Cf. Bargs, Complment, p. 5.

9. Cf. Bargs, Histoire, ch. 20.

10. Histoire des Berbres, 3, p. 328.

11. BN 48b.

12. He was "ibn-`amm ayyn wlid Yaghmursan ibn-Zayyn," ibid.

13. Ff. 48b.

14. "Laysa la-h ill m ubbu-h", At-Tanas, f. 49a.

15. Ibn-Khaldn, Histoire, 3, p. 350.

16. Ibn-Khaldn, Histoire, 3, p. 353-4; cf. Bargs, Complment, 18-19, after Yay ibn-Khaldn.

17. At-Tanas, f. 51a; the text has "Ab-Sa`d", but the margin corrects this name to Ab-mir.

18. The following chronology of Ab-Sa`d's activities is from Yay b. Khaldn in Bargs, Complment, 28-37.

19. Or "al-Mahdiyya", according to at-Tanas, f. 51a.

20. In his Ar-rila al-maghribiyya; cf. Bargs, Complment, 29; tr. Cherbonneau in Revue Africaine, n. 28 (1880), p. 288.

21. Yay b. Khaldn; cf. Bargs, Complment, 39.

22. At-Tanas, f. 52a, follows the author of Durar al-ghurar in placing Ab-Zayyn's death before the end of the siege, but notes that Yay ibn-Khaldn, in Bughya ar-ruwwd places his death after the siege; so do Ibn-Khaldn, Histoire, 3, 382, and the author of Qirs; cf. Bargs, Complment, 39.

23. At-Tanas, f. 57b.

24. Y. b. Khaldn; Bargs, Compl., 50.

25. At-Tanas, f. 52a and Y. b. Khaldn, according to Bargs, Compl., 52; "al-Ghuzz" indicates a Western Turkestan origin. Ibn-Khaldn has "al-Kurd" (p. 394).

26. Y. b. Khaldn gives the 21st; Bargs, Compl., 55.

27. Ibid., 69.

28. Ibid., 69-70.

29. At-Tanas, f. 53a.

30. Y. b. Khaldn; Bargs, Compl., 129.

31. Cf. Bargs, Compl., 134-8, for Y. b. Khaldn's detailed account of the defeat and capture of Ab-Thbit.

32. Bargs, Compl., 157.

33. Y. b. Khaldn; Bargs, Compl., 159-60.

34. These details of Ab-amm's imprisonment to his death are found in Bargs, Compl., taken from the marginal notes added by the copyist of Bargs ms. of Y. b. Khaldn.

35. Cf. Ibn-Maryam, al-Bustn f dhikr al-awliy' wa-l-`ulam' bi-Tilimsn (Algiers, 1908), p. 76 (on Abarkn).

36. Muammad az-Zarkash, Ta'rkh ba ad-dawla al-muwaidiyya wa-nubgh ad-dawla al-afiyya wa-dhikr man malak min-hum (Paris: Bibliothque Nationale, ms. 1874), f. 81a-b.

37. Az-Zarkash, ff. 81b-82a.

38. On the last point see Bargs, Compl., p. 228, who follows an appendix to "his" manuscript of Yy. b. Khaldn.

39. Az-Zarkash, f. 83b.

40. Cf. Bargs, Compl., pp. 295-6, who follows the same appendix.

41. Cf. Kenny, op. cit., I, C, b.

42. Cf. at-Tanas, ff. 72a-73a. At-Tanas says it was on a Friday, but this date is a Thursday.

43. Ff. 72a ff.; cf. Ibn-Maryam, 74, 87-8.

44. For varying accounts of his death, see az-Zarkash, f. 84b, and Ibn-Maryam, pp. 231-232.

45. Cf. `Abdalbsi b. Khall, ar-Raw al-bsim f awdith al-`umr wa-t-tarjim, ed. & tr. by Robert Brunschvig, Deux rcits de voyage indits en Afrique du Nord au XVe sicle, `Abdalbsiet Adorne (Paris, 1936), p. 69 ff. See also Brunschvig, La Berbrie orientale sous les afides des origines la fin du XVe sicle, v. 1, pp. 260-262.

46. Cf. at-Tanas, ff. 73a-77b. With these incidents the account of At-Tanas ends.

47. See J. Kenny, op. cit., D, b, n. 8.

48. See Kenny, ibid., D, b, n. 8.

49. It is not indicated whether this is M. b. A. al-`Uqbn or his successor I. b. Q. al-`Uqbn; see below, D, b, nos. 8 and 9.

50. Az-Zarkash, ff. 102b-105a.

51. Spoken of by Bargs, Compl., pp. 419-420, note; he gives no source for his information.

52. According to Bargs, Compl., p. 398, again following a note on "his" manuscript of Yy. b. Khaldn; see p. 412 to correct a mistaken figure on p. 398. Georges Marçais, in "`Abd-al-Wdids," EI2 , also gives 873/ 1468, apparently following Bargs.

53. Cf. Bargs, Coml., p. 401, who gives no source references. He is followed by G. Marçais in "`Abdal-Wdids," EI2 .

54. Cf. G. Marçais, ibid.

55. See below, D, b, n. 6.

56. Al-`qda a-ughr, with shiya of M. b. A. b. `Arafa ad-Dasq (Cairo: alab, 1358/ 1939), introduction, pp. 14-15.

57. The date is from his funeral monument, used as a lintel of a door; cf. M.C. Brosselard, "Mmoire pigraphique et historique sur les tombeaux des mirs Bani-Zaiyan et de Boabdil, dernier roi de Granade, dcouverts Tlemcen," J.A., 7ime srie, v. 7 (1876), 178.

58. Ibn-Maryam, p. 266; Brosselard cites "la tradition" for the date of ath-Thbit's death.

59. A. de C. Motylinski, "Expdition de Pedro de Navarre et de Garcia de Toledo contre Djerba (1510) d'aprs les sources abadhites," Actes du XIVe Contrs International des Orientalistes, Alger 1905 (Paris: Leroux, 1908), part 3, pp. 133-167; Arabic text, p. 134. The capture of Wahrn is also described by Leo Africanus.

60. Leo Africanus.

61. For more information on these and other men of this period, see J. Kenny, op. cit., I, D.