|Praise Yahweh from the heavens; * praise him from the heights.|
| Praise him, all his angels; * praise him, all his soldiers!|
Praise him, sun and moon; * praise him, all morning stars!
Praise him, high heavens, * you waters above the heavens!
Let them praise the name of Yahweh; * alone he commanded and they were created.
He stationed them from of old forever; * he gave a decree which shall never pass away.
|Praise Yahweh from the underworld, * you sea monsters and all you depths!|
| Lightning and hail, snow and smoke, * storm wind carrying out his command,|
mountains and all hills, * fruit trees and all cedars,
wild animals and all cattle, * reptiles and birds with wings,
kings of earth and all peoples, * princes and all tribes of earth,
finest youth and young ladies, * old men and children alike:
|let them praise the name of Yahweh, * for his name alone is exalted.|
| Though his splendor is above earth and heaven, * he raised the horn of his people.|
Praise be from all his worshipers, * from the children of Israel, * the people close to him.
148:0 This is the 148th Psalm in the whole book. In the preceding Psalm he invited the Church both militant and triumphant to praise God for the restoration of the Church, prefigured in the restoration by Haggai and Zechariah. In this Psalm he invites all creatures, indicating that every creature is material for praising God, in as much as it will be retrieved from corruption in that rebuilding and restoration of the Church after the judgment. So it has the same title as the last one: Hallelu-Yah of Haggai and Zechariah for the full and perfect restoration of the temple
The Psalmist (1) invites creatures one by one to praise God,(2) then he invites them all together: "the praise of him". In the first he invites (1) the superior creatures, (2) then the inferior creatures: "praise the Lord from the earth". In the first he (1) invites, (2) gives the reason for his invitation: "for he spoke". In the first, he invites (1) spiritual creatures, (2) bodily creatures: "praise him sun". In the first, he invites spiritual creatures with reference (1) to their origin, (2) to their dignity: "praise him in the heights", (3) to their office and work: "praise him all his angels".
1. Praise ye the Lord from the heavens:
Praise Yahweh from the heavens;
148:184.108.40.206.1 The idea is: In the previous Psalm I urged Jerusalem and Zion to praise. Now I urge you who originated from the heavens, that is the angels, who were created in the empyrean heaven, to praise the Lord. Although all of you have your origin in heaven, you do not all live there, but some fell never to rise again because they cannot. So I invite you in the heavens to praise the Lord, as has been done from the beginning -Job 38:7 (Where were you) when the morning stars sang together and all the heavenly beings shouted for joy?, as happened at the birth of our Savior -Luke 2:13 And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host, praising God and saying, "Glory to God in the highest heaven". One heard these praises with the ear of the heart -Rev 19:1 After this I heard what seemed to be the loud voice of a great multitude in heaven, saying, "Hallelu-Yah! Salvation and glory and power to our God". -Is 6:3 And one called to another and said: "Holy, holy, holy is Yahweh of hosts; the whole earth is full of his glory".
Note that (1) some are from heaven by nature and by grace stay in heaven, namely, the good angels. (2) Others are from heaven by nature but do not stay there by grace, namely, the bad angels. (3) Others are not from heaven by nature, but stay there by grace, namely, good men. (4) Others are not from heaven by nature, nor do the stay there by grace, namely, bad men. Note also that the verb is in the imperative form not in the proper sense of a command, but as a congratulation.
praise ye him in the high places.
praise him from the heights.
148:220.127.116.11.2 Not commented
2. Praise ye him, all his angels, praise ye him, all his hosts.
Praise him, all his angels; praise him, all his soldiers!
148:18.104.22.168.3 This is about the office and work of spiritual creatures, (1) first about their office, (2) then about their activity: "praise him all his hosts". The idea is: Praise him all you who are from heaven, yet live there by grace, and also praise him, all his angels, that is his messengers who reveal his goodness -Dan 3:58 Angels of the Lord, bless the Lord. The name "angel" is the name of an office -Ps 104:4 who makes the winds his messengers (Vul: who make your angels spirits). -Gregory: The spirits of the heavenly homeland are always spirits, but cannot always be called angels. They are properly called angels when somethings are announced to us through them -Ps 103:20 Bless Yahweh, his angels, warriors mighty to execute his command, heeding the sound of his word.
Praise him all his powers, that is, the angels themselves who are appointed to do wonderful works. They belong to him by right of creation and of rule -Ps 103:21 Bless Yahweh, all his soldiers, his ministers who do his will. -Dan 3:61 All powers of the Lord, bless the Lord.
But how can the Psalmist here command the angels, since he is not greater than them? The answer is that the imperative mode is taken (1) sometimes properly as a command -Exodus 20:12 Honor your father and your mother. -Luke 10:28 Do this, and you will live. -Mat 19:21 Go, sell your possessions, and give the money to the poor. (2) sometimes honorifically - Ephesians 5:15 Be careful then how you live, not as unwise people but as wise. (3) sometimes predictively -John 2:19 Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up. -John 13:27 Do quickly what you are going to do. (4) sometimes ironically and sarcastically - 1 Kings 22:15 When he had come to the king, the king said to him, "Micaiah, shall we go to Ramoth-gilead to battle, or shall we refrain?" He answered him, "Go up and triumph; Yahweh will give it into the hand of the king." (5) sometimes by way of begging -Ps 51:3 Be merciful to me, God. -Job 7:16 Let me alone, for my days are a breath. (6) sometimes by way of congratulating, as in this verse, as the Gloss says. (7) sometimes by way of detestation -Mat 7:23 Go away from me, you evildoers. (7) sometimes by way of invitation, either to grace -Mat 11:28 Come to me, all you that are weary and are carrying heavy burdens, and I will give you rest- or to glory -Mat 25:34 Come, you that are blessed by my Father.
3. Praise ye him, O sun and moon: praise him, all ye stars and light.
Praise him, sun and moon; praise him, all morning stars!
148:22.214.171.124.1 Here the Psalmist invites the superior bodily creatures, referring to (1) the sidereal heaven in its adornment, (2) the empyrean heaven: "heavens of heavens", (3) the crystal heaven, which is in between the two: "the waters above the heavens". The idea is: Praise God, you superior spiritual creatures, and also praise him you sun, the greater luminary, and moon, the middle luminary, and all you stars, the smallest luminaries. Praise him not only by your substances, but also by your effects. So he adds and light, which is caused by the sun, moon and the stars. Praise him, for he is your creator - Gen 1:16 God made the two great lights-- the greater light to rule the day and the lesser light to rule the night -and the stars. -Dan 3:62-63 Sun and moon, bless the Lord, stars of heaven, bless the Lord. It is not surprising that he adds "light", because in Daniel even the darkness is invited to praise -Dan 3:72 Light and darkness, bless the Lord.
4. Praise him, ye heavens of heavens:
Praise him, high heavens,
148:126.96.36.199.2 The idea is: Praise him, everything that belongs to the starry heaven, and also you heavens of heavens, that is, the empyrean heaven, which is above all the heavens and contains them, praise him whose magnitude you cannot contain -1 Kings 8:27 Even heaven and the highest heaven cannot contain you. But there are other heavens infinitely more excellent than these, namely the heavens of the Trinity, which contain it - Deut 10:14 Heaven and the heaven of heavens belong to Yahweh your God. -Ps 115:20 The high heavens belong to Yahweh.
and let all the waters that are above the heavens 5. praise the name of the Lord.
you waters above the heavens! Let them praise the name of Yahweh;
148:188.8.131.52.3 This is about the watery heaven. The saints posit waters above the starry heaven in the form of solid crystal, illuminated throughout by the empyrean heaven -Dan 3:60 All waters above the heaven, bless the Lord.
The sun is Christ -Mal 3:20 For you who fear my neame, the Sun of justice will rise with healing in its rays. He gives praise -Mat 11:25 I thank you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth. The moon is Mary -Cant 6:10 Who is this that looks forth like the dawn, fair as the moon, bright as the sun, terrible as an army with banners? -Ps 89:38 Like the moon will his descendants live on, She gave praise -Luke 1:46 My soul magnifies the Lord. The stars are the priests and prelates -Baruch 3:34 The stars shone in their watches. They give praise -Sir 48:8 With his every deed he offered thanks to God the Most High in words of praise. The luminous body are the subjects, who are like the effects of good prelates - Eph 5:8 Once you were darkness, but now in the Lord you are light. Live as children of light. -Luke 18:43 All the people, when they saw it, praised God. And they give praise -Luke 18:43 All the people, when they saw it, praised God. The heavens of the heavens are the Apostles and Prophets - Job 26:13 By his wind the heavens were made fair. These give praise - 2 Chronicles 20:19 The sons of Korah, un-balded at Calvary, since Korah means Calvary, stood up to praise Yahweh, the God of Israel, with a very loud voice. The waters above the heavens are the minor saints -Rev 22:1 Then the angel showed me the river of the water of life. These give praise -Sir 24:2 In the assembly of the Most High she opens her mouth, in the presence of his hosts she declares her worth . All of them together -Is 43:21 the people whom I formed for myself so that they might declare my praise. -Rev 19:5 Praise our God, all you his servants, and all who fear him, small and great. - Is 65:14 My servants shall sing for gladness of heart.
For he spoke, and they were made: he commanded, and they were created.
alone he commanded and they were created.
148:184.108.40.206 Here is the double reason why they should praise him: (1) the simple fact that he gave them being, (2) the fact that he gave them an ordered way of being: "He established them". The first refers to the natural being (1) of bodily creatures, (2) of spiritual creatures: "he commanded". The idea is: The superior bodily creatures should praise God, for he spoke and they were made -Gen 1:3 etc. He spoke, and they existed. His speaking is his willing them to be. His word from eternity, in which all things were made, is generative. -Augustine, in his Confessions: By your eternal word you say all that you say, nor do you make anything otherwise than by saying it.
He commanded rational creatures, to whom a command can be made, and they were created. Referring to this creation in the beginning is Genesis 1:1 In the beginning God created the heaven. Referring to the creation of rational and irrational creatures is Judith 16:14 Let all your creatures serve you, for you spoke, and they were made. You sent forth your spirit, and it formed (Vul: created) them. But why does he not say "created" before "made", since creation comes before making, and spiritual creatures rank before bodily ones? The answer is that the Prophet begins with what can be sensed, according to the order of our knowledge; for we know bodily things before spiritual things - 1 Cor 15:46 It is not the spiritual that is first, but the physical, and then the spiritual.
6. He hath established them for ever, and for ages of ages: he hath made a decree, and it shall not pass away.
He stationed them from of old forever; he gave a decree which shall never pass away.
148:220.127.116.11 Here is the giving of an ordered way of being, (1) to superior irrational beings, (2) to superior rational beings: "he made a decree". For establishment is fitting for irrational creatures, while a decree is for rational ones. The idea is: They should praise him because he gave them being, but also because he established them in their places to stay there permanently, each in its proper position. Therefore he adds: forever, for all ages. This is not contrary to Matthew 24 :35 Heaven and earth will pass away, because they will not pass away in their substance, but in their configuration -1 Cor 7:31 The present form of this world is passing away. -Jer 31:35-36 Yahweh who provides the sun to shine by day, who regulates moon and stars to shine by night... says this, "Were this established order ever to pss away before me..."
He made a decree for superior rational beings, and it shall not pass away. What was that decree? It is that they should obey and praise him, which they do for eternity. -Sir 42:24-25 The universe lives and abides forever; to meet each need, each creatures is preserved... none of them has he made in vain, for each in turn, as it comes, is good.
7. Praise the Lord from the earth, ye dragons,
Praise Yahweh from the underworld, you sea monsters
148:1.2.1 Here he invites all in general to praise, or he shows that inferior creatures also should praise, (1) first those born monstruously, (2) those born normally: "and all you depths". The idea is: You superior creatures, praise, and also you dragons, praise the Lord. Dragons here stand for all kinds of monsters because, as the Gloss says, they are the largest of all animals. These dragons originate from the earth, although they live in the sea. They come out of caves and fly in the air, polluting it. They are creatures -Ps 104:26 Leviathan whom you shaped to play with.
and all ye deeps: 8. Fire, hail, snow, ice, stormy winds, which fulfil his word: 9. Mountains and all hills,
and all you depths! Lightning and hail, snow and smoke, storm wind carrying out his command,
148:18.104.22.168 Here he invites all normally generated things, (1) inanimate, and (2) animate: "fruitful trees". The first has four things corresponding to the four elements: (1) water, (2) fire: "fire", (3) air: "hail, snow", (4) earth: "mountains". The idea is: Praise him, you dragons, and all you depths, all the seas and water depths -Dan 3:77-78 All springs, bless the Lord. All seas and rivers, bless the Lord, who created you. -Prayer of Manasseh 1:3 who shackled the sea by your word of command, who confined the deep and sealed it with your terrible and glorious name.
Fire, you too praise -Dan 3:66 Fire and heat, bless the Lord.
Next he refers to air, under four different impressions found in it: hail, snow and ice, coming from cold and humid currents, and stormy winds, coming from cold and dry currents. Hail is formed in the higher air, ice in the lower and snow in the middle. All these, as the Gloss says, although they are changeable and turbid, have their place and order, and are creatures -Sir39:29 In his treasury also, kept for the proper time, are fire and hail. [Albert's ref. to Jeremiah does not exist.] So it is clear that they also obey.- Job 37:6 For to the snow he says, "Fall on the earth". - Job 37:10 By the breath of God ice is given. - Ezekiel 13:13 Thus says the Lord Yahweh: In my wrath I will make a stormy wind break out. And that is what he adds here: which do his word. -Ps 107:25 He stilled the storm to a whisper .
Mountains, the major elevations of the earth, and hills, minor elevations -Dan 3:75 Mountains and hills, bless the Lord. -Is 55:12 The mountains and the hills before you shall burst into song.
fruitful trees and all cedars:
fruit trees and all cedars,
148:22.214.171.124.1 Here he invites animate creatures and shows that these too are fit to praise: (1) vegetative things, (2) sensitive things: "beasts", (3) rational things: "kings". Of vegetative things, there are (1) what is good to eat, (2) what is good for building: "cedars", the first against internal wear-down, the second against external affliction. These are all creatures - Gen 2:9 Out of the ground Yahweh God made to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for food. -Gen 1:29 I have given you every plant yielding seed that is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree with seed in its fruit; you shall have them for food. Likewise he created the cedars and other trees that are good for building and gave them to man - Is 41:19 I will put in the wilderness the cedar, the acacia, the myrtle, and the olive; I will set in the desert the cypress, the plane and the pine together. The cedars especially should praise, because they were used in building the temple of God (1 Kings 5-7).
10. Beasts and all cattle: serpents and feathered fowls:
wild animals and all cattle, reptiles and birds with wings,
148:126.96.36.199.2 Here he invites sensitive things, (1) those that walk, (2) reptiles: "serpents", (3) those that fly: "birds with wings". In the first there are (1) the larger animals that walk, (2) the smaller: "all cattle". All these are creatures -Gen 1:24 Let the earth bring forth living creatures of every kind: cattle and creeping things and wild animals of the earth and birds of every kind.
Another interpretation from the verse Praise the Lord from the earth, dragons, that is, the devil - Rev 12:4 The dragon's tail swept down a third of the stars of heaven, from the land of the living where he was made, and threw them to the earth -Job 10:21-22 to the land of gloom and deep darkness, the land of gloom and chaos, where light is like darkness. The devil and all who belong to him are fit to praise in as much as they are ordered to punishment by God -Ez 29:3 I am against you, Pharaoh king of Egypt, the great dragon sprawling in the midst of its channels. - Rev 20:2 He seized the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is the Devil and Satan, and bound him. - Rev 20:10 And the devil who had deceived them was thrown into the lake of fire and sulfur, where the beast and the false prophet were, and they will be tormented day and night forever and ever.
The depths are sinners, especially those addicted to sense pleasure -Job 28:12,14 But where shall wisdom be found? And where is the place of understanding? The deep says, "It is not in me," and the sea says, "It is not with me" . And it speaks the truth -Sir 1:3 The depths of the abyss: who can explore it? He who turns their works into his praise, because he punishes them according to their [illicit] pleasures. - Rev 18:7 As she glorified herself and lived luxuriously, so give her a like measure of torment and grief. -Rev 19:1-2 Salvation and glory and power to our God... he has judged the great whore who corrupted the earth.
The grasping are referred to according to five different temptations to this sin: (1) Fire serves the appetite -Prov 30:16 Fire never says "enough". (2) Hail is labor and anxiety in acquiring things - Exodus 9:25 The hail struck down everything that was in the open field, in their labor to make a gain. Note (9:24) that fire and hail were sent together, because an ardent appetite to possess is accompanied by anxiety to acquire. (3) Snow is the fear of losing - Prov 31:21 She is not afraid for her household when it snows; this is said of the holy soul that despises temporal things. (4) Ice is avarice in holding onto whatever one has; it cannot be melted, just like ice - Wis 16:29 The hope of an ungrateful person will melt like wintry frost . (5) Stormy winds are sorrow, commotion and storm at losing something -1 Kings 19:11 After the wind was an earthquake, but Yahweh was not in the earthquake. - Is 19:3 The spirit of the Egyptians within them will be emptied out. They are fit for praise when they are converted, because God turns their evil into good - Gen 50:20 Even though you intended to do harm to me, God intended it for good. They are also fit for praise when they are destined for temporary punishment, to fulfil Psalm 11:7 Let him rain on the wicked roaring fire and sulphur.
The mountains and hills are the proud, who also are fit to praise, when they are humbled, either by grace, that is, the virtue of humility, or by the punishment of humiliation -Is 40:4 Every mountain and hill will be made low. -Is 44:23 Break forth into singing, O mountains, for the Lord has consoled his people and had mercy on the poor. Even those humiliated by punishment are fit to praise, as in the case of Antiochus when he was struck down - 2 Maccabees 9:12 When he could not endure his own stench, he uttered these words, "It is right to be subject to God; mortals should not think that they are equal to God" . And there is the case of Nebuchadnezzar - Daniel 4:31 When that period was over, I, Nebuchadnezzar, lifted my eyes to heaven, and my reason returned to me. I blessed the Most High, and praised and honored the one who lives forever.
The fruit trees are prelates, because of the fruit they bear -Col 1:10 as you bear fruit in every good work and as you grow in the knowledge of God. They are cedars through the scent of a good life - 2 Corinthians 2:15 For we are the aroma of Christ to God among those who are being saved. These praise God -Is 55:12 The trees of the field shall clap their hands.
The beasts, cattle and serpents are active people, while walking shows progress from good to better, and the serpent stands for caution. These praise God, the greater ones in working - Is 43:20 The wild animals will honor me- the lesser ones too -I s 60:7 All the flocks of Kedar shall be gathered to you- and the cautious serpents -Mat 10:6 Be wise as serpents.
The birds with wings are the contemplative - Prov 1:17 For in vain is the net baited while the bird is looking on. Therefore they should praise -Dan 3:80 All birds of the sky, bless the Lord .
11. Kings of the earth and all people: princes and all judges of the earth: 12. Young men and maidens: let the old with the younger, praise the name of the Lord: 13. For his name alone is exalted.
kings of earth and all peoples, princes and all tribes of earth, finest youth and young ladies, old men and children alike: let them praise the name of Yahweh, for his name alone is exalted.
148:188.8.131.52.3 Here he invites rational creatures, or men, according to their (1) dignity, (2) sex: "young men", (3) age: "the old", (4) with the reason for praising: "for his name". In the first there is a triple pre-eminency: (1) that of power, seen in kings, (2) that of goodness, seen in princes, (3) that of wisdom, seen in judges. The idea is: Along with the preceding, you kings of the earth should praise, and he adds those over whom the kings have pre-eminence: and all people. Kings praise, as did David -1 Chron 29:9-10 King David also rejoiced greatly. Then David blessed Yahweh in the presence of all the assembly; David said: "Blessed are you, Yahweh, the God of our ancestor Israel, forever and ever. -Dan 4:34 I, Nebuchadnezzar, lifted my eyes to heaven, and my reason returned to me. I blessed the Most High, and praised and honored the one who lives forever.
And all people - Is 43:21 the people whom I formed for myself so that they might declare my praise. Princes - 1 Chron 15:16 David also commanded the chiefs of the Levites to appoint their kindred as the singers to play on musical instruments.
And all judges of the earth: Judges praise God when they judge rightly, knowing what is said in Deuteronomy 16:18 You shall appoint judges and officials throughout your tribes, in all your towns that Yahweh your God is giving you, and they shall render just decisions for the people. Those who badly judge blaspheme, like those mentioned in Daniel 13:5 Wckedness has come to Babylon through the elders and judges posing as guides to the people. -Zeph 3:3 Its judges are evening wolves that leave nothing until the morning.
Young men and virgins, with reference to the masculine and feminine sex. Young people should praise -Qoheleth 11:9 Rejoice, young man, while you are young, and let your heart cheer you in the days of your youth. With regard to virgins - Ex 15:20 Then the prophet Miriam, Aaron's sister, took a tambourine in her hand; and all the women went out after her with tambourines and with dancing.
Old men and young, with regard to old age and youth: Old men should praise God for the wisdom that has been given to them - Job 12:12 Wisdom is with the aged, and understanding in length of days . -Sir 25:6 The crown of old men is wide experience; their glory, the fear of Yahweh. As for the youth, the praise of God is completed at the same time in them -Ps 8:3 From the mouth of babes and sucklings you perfected praise (Vul). -Ps 113:1 Boys, praise the Lord (Vul). -Jer 31:13 The young girl will then take pleasure in the dancing, and young men and old alike.
Then the reason is given: because his name alone is exalted. The name is the Son, because through him the divinity becomes known -1 John 1:18 It is God the only Son, who is close to the Father's heart, who has made him known. - Phil 2:9 Therefore God also highly exalted him and gave him the name that is above every name. - Is 52:13 See, my servant shall prosper; he shall be exalted and lifted up, and shall be very high. -Is 2:11 Yahweh alone will be exalted in that day.
14. The praise of him is above heaven and earth:
Though his splendor is above earth and heaven,
148:2.1 After showing, one by one, that creatures are fit to praise God, here he shows this altogether, without naming any in particular. God is to be praised for three things: (1) the work of creation, (2) the work of recreation: "he exalted the horn", (3) the work of glorification: "a hymn". The idea is: Praise him, each creature. Praise him also all together, because his praise is above heaven and earth, that is, he is to be praised above all created things, superior or inferior. Or: His praise is more than any creature, heavenly or earthly, can express -Hab 3:3 His glory covered the heavens, and the earth was full of his praise. - Prayer of Manasseh 1:1-2,15 O Lord Almighty, you who made heaven and earth with all their order... I will praise you continually all the days of my life.
and he hath exalted the horn of his people.
he raised the horn of his people.
148:2.2 Here is the work of recreation, with the idea: You should be praised for making heaven and earth, but also because you exalted the horn, that is, Christ, by his own Passion -1 Sam 2:10 He will give strength to his king, and exalt the power of his anointed. -1 Sam 2:1 My strength is exalted in my God- of his people , whom he redeemed by his very exaltation - John 3:14-15 And just as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, so must the Son of Man be lifted up. For what? that whoever believes in him may have eternal life. - John 12:32 And I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all people to myself. Or: The horn refers to the power and dignity of the Christian name, which he raised very high - Luke 1:69 He has raised up a mighty savior for us in the house of his servant David, that is, in the Church.
A hymn to all his saints to the children of Israel, a people approaching to him. Alleluia.
Praise be from all his worshipers, from the children of Israel, the people close to him. Hallelu-Yah!
148:2.3 Here God is praised for the work of glorifying three categories of people: (1) the saints, (2) the children of Israel, (3) people approaching him. If these are carefully examined, three qualities of soul emerge: The saints are those who are purified of every earthly love and with sincere love cleave to eternal things. The sons of Israel are the same, through vision and knowledge of the highest truth. Those who approach him are the same, through total immersion in the enjoyment of God's goodness. The idea is: Praise him for his works of creation, recreation, and also because [his work of glorification is celebrated by] a hymn and joy, that is, praise of God with a song -1 Mac 4:24 They sang hymns and praises to Heaven-"For he is good, for his mercy endures forever" . -2 Mac 10:38 With hymns and thanksgivings they blessed the Lord who shows great kindness to Israel. - Judith 16:13 I will sing to my God a new song. This is and will be for all his saints, that is, all who adhere to him with a pure and holy love -Rev 19:5 And from the throne came a voice saying, "Praise our God, all you his servants, and all who fear him.
The children of Israel, that is, the hymn will be for the saints, who are the children of Israel, who see God openly -T obit 13:3 Acknowledge him before the nations, O children of Israel. -Is 51:11 They will come to Zion with singing; everlasting joy shall be upon their heads (Albert: with speculation of eternal things). -Is 52:8 Together they sing for joy; for in plain sight they see the return of Yahweh to Zion.
A people approaching him through eternal enjoyment. Someone who enjoys moves entirely into God -Sir 24:18-19 Come to me, all you that yearn for me, and be filled with my fruits; you will remember me as sweeter than honey. -Jer 31:14 My people shall be filled with my blessings. - James 4:8 Draw near to God, by extending your desire , and he will draw near to you, by infusing his sweetness . May he one day be pleased to infuse it to us, he who is blessed for all ages. Amen.