Psalm 76

God has shown himself in Judah; * his name is great in Israel.
    His den was in Salem, * and his lair in Zion.
    There with his thunderbolts he shattered the bow, * the shield and sword and weapons of war.
        O Brightness, you are majestic! * They tried to plunder the mountains of the Lion,
        but the warriors slept their last sleep, * and were found no more; * soldiers perished
                with their power.
        At your roar, God of Jacob, * both chariot and horse lay stunned.
            You alone strike terror, * and who can stand your fury, * your anger from of old?
        From heaven you will sound the sentence; * the earth will shudder and fall still.
        When you arise for the judgment, God, * to save all the meek of the earth,
        they will praise you for your rage with mankind; * the survivors of your rage will
                gather round you.
    Make and fulfil your vows * to Yahweh your God.
    Let all those around him * bring gifts to the One Who Sees.
He fathoms the mind of princes; * he is fearsome to the kings of the earth.

76:0 This is Psalm 76 [Vulgate 75] in the whole book, the 76th in the second part. After urging the Jews in Psalm 74 to accept the salvation worked in the center of the earth, and frightening them in Psalm 75 with the second coming of Christ for judgment, here the Psalmist intends to confound them by showing that their glory has passed to others, and that there is another true Judea, true Israel, true Jerusalem and true Zion, where God God is truly known and dwells forever, with his adversaries are expelled after they received gifts from him.

1. Unto the end, in praises, a psalm for Asaph: a canticle to the Assyrians. This is shown in the title, which means that the Psalm belongs to Asaph, that is, the congregation of the good. The Psalm directs us to our end, which is Christ, in whom the Law is fulfilled and everything has passed over to him. -Rom 10:4 Christ is the end of the law so that there may be righteousness. And it is a canticle in praises, because it considers the good things and graces given to the Gentiles, leading them to recognize and know God, and to be enlightened and saved by him -1 Cor 4:7 What do you have that you did not receive? -James 1:17 Every generous act of giving, with every perfect gift, is from above, coming down from the Father of lights. All these good things are received from God together with Christ -Wis 7:11 All good things came to me along with her. It is against the Assyrians, not the historical Assyrians, 80,000 of whom the angel of the Lord killed with one blow in front of Jerusalem, but against those that these signify, namely the Jews, who are called Assyrians, that is, directors, by way of irony and in mockery. For they are more accurately called those who go astray and lead other astray, rather than directors. -Wisdom 5:6 So it was we who strayed from the way of truth; this is what they will say in the end. -Mat 15:14 Let them alone; they are blind guides of the blind. And if one blind person guides another, both will fall into a pit. Or they could be called directors in the sense that they always rose up against God -Rom 10:3 Seeking to establish their own justice, they did not submit to God's justice. -Job 15:26 He ran against him with his neck raised (Vul). And in fact they can also be called Assyrians because, just as the ancient Assyrians persecuted the people of God, so these now persecute the Christian people. The Psalm is divided into three parts: (1) Which goods have passed from the Jews to the Gentiles, (2) How, through whom and in what order: "There he broke", (3) A concluding exhortation that all are unworthy of such a great benefit, and will be subject to a terrible judgment if they break what they have promised: "For the thought of man". The first takes up four things that passed to the Gentiles: (1) the knowledge of God, (2) the magnificence of God: "his name is great", (3) the fore-choosing of the Gentiles: "and his place", (4) the dwelling he chose to make among the Gentiles: "and his abode". In the first the Gentile world is called Judea, in the second Israel, in the third Jerusalem, in the fourth Zion.

2. In Judea God is known:
God has shown himself in Judah;

76:1.1 The idea is: God, whom you carnal Jews reject, is known in the spiritual Judea, not among you. -Isaiah 1:3 The ox knows its owner, and the donkey its master's crib, that is, the Gentile people who formerly were animal-like; but Israel does not know, my people who descended from my Patriarchs do not understand. -Jeremiah 8:7 Even the stork in the heavens knows its times; and the turtledove, swallow, and crane observe the time of their coming; but my people do not know the ordinance of Yahweh. Therefore the Gentiles are the spiritual and true Judea. -Rom 2:28-29 For a person is not a Jew who is one outwardly, nor is true circumcision something external and physical. Rather, a person is a Jew who is one inwardly, and real circumcision is a matter of the heart-- it is spiritual and not literal. The word Judea means "acknowledging". Those who truly acknowledge [God] from the heart by contrition, from the mouth by confession, and in work by satisfaction, to these God is known, through an infusion of abundant grace. He is not known to those who (2 Tim 3:5) hold to the outward form of godliness but deny its power. For whoever shows himself to God in pure confession -Cant 2:14 Let me see your face, let me hear your voice- God shows himself to him. -Job 42:5 Now my eye sees you.

his name is great in Israel.

76:1.2 The idea is: He is known in the spiritual Judea, and his name is great in the spiritual Israel; there his name is magnified, extolled and proclaimed, not in the carnal Israel. To the latter it was said (Ez 36:22): You have profaned my name among the nations. -Romans 2:24 The name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you. But of the true Israelites it is said (Mat 9:31 But they went away and spread the good news about him throughout that district. -Is 62:6 All day and all night they shall never be silent. You who remind Yahweh, take no rest.

3. And his place is in peace:
His den was in Salem,

76:1.3 This is the true and spiritual Jerusalem, which is the Church, which is peaceful.-Mat 5:44 Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you. -Matthew 18:20 Where two or three are gathered in my name with peace and concord, not divided by rancor, I am there among them. They are my place -2 Cor 13:11 Live in peace; and the God of love and peace will be with you. -1 Kings 19:11-12 Yahweh was not in the wind, nor in the fire, but in a sound of sheer silence. To show this, he decided to rest on the Sabbath, which is a day of rest, in the tomb and stay there. But in the carnal Jerusalem, which only looks for earthly things, there is no peace, and therefore that cannot be the place of God. -John 16:33 In me you have peace, but in the world persecution.

and his abode in Sion:
and his lair in Zion.

76:1.4 The true Zion is the Church, which is continuously looking at the Lord through faith. -Is 62:4 You shall be called My Delight Is in Her, and your land Married; for Yahweh delights in you. -Ez 48:35 The name of the city from that time on shall be, Yahweh is There. This is Zion, that is "looking", which looks at God through faith -1 Cor 13:12 Now we see in a mirror, dimly. Just as Salem stands for peaceful people, so Zion stands for religious men or prelates. Zion means a mirror, and they must be mirrors to others -Job 33:27 That person sings (Vul: looks) to others and says, "I sinned, and perverted what was right, and it was not paid back to me". Judea stands for those who acknowledge and know God; Israel stand for clergy and students of Sacred Scripture, who should glorify God and proclaim him. Salem stands for the peaceful, who have Christ resting in them. Zion stands for the religious or prelates, who have him as familiar person living with them.

Note also that the womb of the Virgin, the crib, the cross and the tomb were the place of God. In the first he knocked down pride, in the second riches, in the third worldly power, [in the fourth] he wished to be enclosed in a small space.

4. There hath he broken the powers
There with his thunderbolts he shattered

76:2.1.1 This is the second part of the whole Psalm, although in the Gloss it is a little differently marked. Here is shown the order and manner that these blessings passed to the Gentiles, and that is by the overthrowing of the enemy power, the manifestation of the truth and the instillation of fear. According to these three, there are three sections in this part: (1) the overthrow of the opposing power, (2) the manifestation of the truth to the good, which was a disturbance for the wicked who were sleeping in earthly things: "You shine wonderfully", (3) the instillation of fear by an announcement of the future judgment: "You are terrible". In the first there is: (1) the overthrow of the opposing power, (2) the specification of this by metaphors and figures: "the bow, the shield". The idea is: God is known in Judea, magnificent in Israel, having his place in Salem and dwelling in Zion. That is not surprising, because there, in the church of the Gentiles, he broke the powers of the demons who were venerated in idols. -Is 46:1 Bel bows down, Nebo stoops, their idols are broken.

The powers of the devil also refer to his weapons, that is, his counsels and instruments, such as the powerful of the world, the multitude of armies, the multidude and diversity of sinners, and their strength by being obstinate. But the Lord destroyed all this by his holy weapons, that is, his counsels, as Paul says (2 Cor 10:4) The weapons of our warfare are not merely human, but they have divine power to destroy strongholds. We destroy arguments and every proud obstacle. These are the power described in 1 Mac 6:20 He built siege towers and other engines of war. But some of the garrison escaped from the siege. The armies were many and strong, but then they were at their greatest. -Qoheleth 1:15 The number of stupid people is infinite (Vul). -Is 29:7 And the multitude of all the nations that fight against Ariel, all that fight against her and her stronghold, and who distress her, shall be like a dream, a vision of the night. -Prov 21:22 One wise person went up against a city of warriors and brought down the stronghold in which they trusted.

of bows, the shield, the sword, and the battle.
the bow, the shield and sword and weapons of war.

76:2.1.2 Here he specifies how the opponents were overthrown, mentioning the means of putting an end to the combatants [read: bellantium] and the battle itself. The first mentions three instruments: (1) for fighting from afar: bows, (2) for fighting close at hand: the sword, and (3) for defending oneself: the shield. The idea is: He destroyed the powers and the bow, which shoots from afar and connotes deceit -Ps 46:10 The bow he breaks, and snaps the spear. -Jer 9:3 They bend their tongues like bows; they have grown strong in the land for falsehood- and the shield which is the defence of sin. -Ps 46:10 The war chariots (Vul: shields) he burns with lightning. -1 Sam 17:6 a javelin of bronze slung between his shoulders- the sword of perverse suggestions, which penetrate right to the heart -Ps 37:14 The wicked, that is, the demons, draw their sword, displaying evil suggestions. -Ez 21:9 A sword, a sword is sharpened, it is also polished. Sometimes this sword is very sharp, and sometimes what is suggested seems not so bad, or even good. -Ibid. It is sharpened for slaughter, polished to flash like lightning- and the battle -Is 2:4 Neither shall they learn war any more. If people in the Church sometimes sin, they nevertheless subject themselves humbly, and do not fight to defend their sin, since they are instructed by holy men and submit themselves to God. Therefore, when Christ was born, the angel announced peace (Luke 2).

5. Thou enlightenest wonderfully from the everlasting hills.
O Brightness, you are majestic! They tried to plunder the mountains of the Lion,

76:2.2.1 Here is the enlightening of the good and the manifestation of the truth to them, which is a disturbance to the evil, and there are three points: (1) the enlightening of the good through the saints, (2) the alarm of the foolish and reprobate: "All the foolish", (3) the reason for such alarm: "at your rebuke". The idea is: The powers of the enemy were broken, and you, O Lord, enlighten the world, that is, your elect -John 1:9 He enlightens every man that comes into the world. This is true regarding himself, even if not all are enlightened because of their sin. Or [we could understand that he enlightens] every man who is enlightened. -James 1:17 Every generous act of giving, with every perfect gift, is from above, coming down from the Father of lights. Therefore Simeon said of the salvation he had received (Luke 2:31): What you have prepared in the presence of all the peoples, a light of revelation for the Gentiles. -Is 49:6 I will give you as a light to the nations.

And this is from the everlasting hills, that is, the Apostles, who are mountains by the high level of their lives. -Ps 87:1 O city founded by him on the holy mountains. They are eternal because they sought only eternal things, and also because they have been made eternal by participation in eternity. -Col 3:1 So if you have been raised with Christ, becoming high mountains, seek the things that are above. Do not become the mountains of Gelboa, which means "descent" and refers to prelates who descend to earthly things by their desires. -2 Sam 1:21 You mountains of Gilboa, let there be no dew or rain upon you. The Apostles are the eternal mountains spoken of in Genesis 49:26 the blessings of the eternal mountains. They enlighten others, since they first receive the rays of light from the true sun, Christ. -Mal 3:20 For you who fear my name, the Sun of justice will rise. Therefore Gregory says: Whoever cannot see the sun, let him look at the mountains on which it shines, as David did -Ps 121:1 I raise my eyes to the Mountain.

6. All the foolish of heart were troubled.

76: Here is the alarm of the reprobate, under three points: (1) their alarm, (2) the duration of their alarm or their conversion: "they slept", (3) what they suffered from that alarm: "and all the men of riches". The idea is: He enlightened the good through the mountains, and therefore the foolish of heart, who should have been considered great, were troubled. For more explanation, he adds what Paul says (Rom 1:21): Their senseless minds, which should have been enlightened, were darkened. For there are hearts which so much love darkness and ignorance that they are disturbed at the light. -Job 24:17 For deep darkness is morning to all of them; for they are friends with the terrors of deep darkness. -Ps 107:27 They reeled and staggered like a drunkard. -Ps 77:19 Your lightning bolts lit up the world. Among these were Herod and the Jews. -Mat 2:3 When King Herod heard this, he was frightened, and all Jerusalem with him. No wonder, because the foolish are like a sick eye. -Augustine: To sick eyes the light is hateful.

They have slept their sleep;
but the warriors slept their last sleep,

76: They were disturbed, but in a good way so as to wake them from their sin? No. Rather, they slept away, resting in these temporal things and the delights of the world. Their sleep was not like that of the saints -Mat 25:5 They all became drowsy and slept, resting with good dreams. -Jer 48:11 From his youth Moab lived at ease, he has rested like wine on its dregs. A characteristic of sleep is that the sleeper rests from real labor and works with phantasms. -Augustine: They loved present things and slept in them. -Cassiodorus: He is asleep who neglects the future and goes after perishable things. -Jer 51:39 I will set out their drink and make them drunk, until they become merry and then sleep a perpetual sleep and never wake.

and all the men of riches have found nothing in their hands.
and were found no more; soldiers perished with their power.

76: They slept in temporal things, and when they awoke all the men of riches, who did not own riches, but were owned by them, found nothing in their hands, that is, under their control. -Job 27:19 He lies down a rich man, one last time; he opens his eyes and nothing remains to him. -Is 29:8 as a thirsty person dreams of drinking and wakes up faint, still thirsty. They found nothing, that is, they found sin, which is a nothing. -John 1:3 Without him nothing was made. They found nothing because they never put anything into the hands of the poor. -Augustine: Give me from what I gave you. You had me as a benefactor, and you will have me to pay you back. -Augustine: The hands of the poor are God's collection basket, in which you put temporal things. By being generous you save; by saving you are giving away. The love of temporal things is like lethargy, where a sticky liquid binds a person in the front part of his brain and makes him lose the use of his senses, preventing him from being woken up by poking and prodding. So the lovers of temporal things are stuck and are totally obtuse to what lies ahead. -Phil 3:13 forgetting what lies behind and straining forward to what lies ahead.

7. At thy rebuke, O God of Jacob, they have all slumbered that mounted on horseback.
At your roar, God of Jacob, both chariot and horse lay stunned.

76:2.2.3 Here is the reason for such blindness to the sight or the dawn of the heavenly light. There is no need for division, but the line is continuous with this construction: Yes, Lord, they were disturbed and slept, but O God of Jacob, a small people, not like the larger people of Esau, those who rode the horses of pride and temporal abundance, which is a horse, as explained above, have all slumbered, as said above, because of your rebuke, that is your anger which blinded them so that they could not see the truth. On those horses -Is 31:1 Alas for those who go down to Egypt for help and who rely on horses.

Note the aptness of the word "they slumbered", not that the lovers of this world do not sleep soundly, but I could say that they sleep briefly. -Prov 6:10=24:33 A little sleep, a little slumber. God's rebuke (1) sometimes means blinding, as it does here, and (2) sometimes preventing a person from sinning -Ps 68:30 Rebuke the beast of the Reed Swamp. Or (3) it can mean calling a person back from evil -Ps 104:7 At your roar they fled. Or (4) it can mean eternal damnation -Zech 3:2 Yahweh rebuke you, Satan!

8. Thou art terrible,
You alone strike terror,

76: Here is the instillation of fear, with three points: (1) God's ability to cause fear is shown, (2) the anouncement of such a horrible judgment on the world: "You caused judgment to be heard", (3) the instillation of fear into the whole world: "the earth trembled". In the first (1) he shows that God's coming to judge will be terrifying, (2) he gives a reason why he should be so terrifying: "who can resist you?". The idea is: You enlightened the world through the Apostles, although others were disturbed and slept cleaving to those temporal things, but, O Lord, you are terrible, very much so in the future judgment -Sir 43:30 Aweful indeed is Yahweh's majesty, especially at the judgment. -Heb 10:27 but a fearful prospect of judgment.

and who shall resist thee? from that time thy wrath.
and who can stand your fury, your anger from of old?

76: Here are the reasons why he is so terrifying: (1) His power cannot be resisted. (2) His sentence against the wicked is irrevocable: "from that time". The idea is: You are terrifying, and no wonder. Who can resist you? The answer is "no one". -Esther 6:13 You will not prevail against him, but will surely fall before him. -Job 9:4 Who has resisted him, and succeeded? Therefore he is terrifying -Job 25:2 Dominion and fear are with him.

From that time, when you will come for judgment, is your anger, namely, the effect of your anger, which is the infliction of punishment, and his sentence against the evil will never be revoked. -2 Sam 1:22 The bow of Jonathan, that is, Christ's sentence, did not turn back, so that it should be revoked, once it has been pronounced over the damned. Therefore the day of judgement is called the day of wrath (dies irae), because there will be no forgiveness and no forgetting of any sin, so as to go unpunished. -Cassiodorus: It is called a day of wrath, because God will not hold back any more out of patience. -Zephaniah 1:15 That day will be a day of wrath. Therefore it is terrifying. -Is 30:27 blazing his anger, heavy his threat. -Nahum 1:6 Who can stand before his indignation? -Malachi 3:2 But who can endure the day of his coming, and who can stand when he appears? Therefore Gregory says: Let everyone abandon his depravity. Let him tremble at God's patience, not despising him now for being quiet only to find no escape from him later when he is angry.

9. Thou hast caused judgment to be heard from heaven:
From heaven you will sound the sentence;

76:2.3.2 The idea is: You will be terrifying when you come, and to instill fear in the world, you caused the future judgment to be heard through preachers from heaven. This voice was heard -Is 3:13 Yahweh has risen to accuse, is standing to pass judgment on the people. -Dan 7:13 I saw coming on the clouds of heaven one like the son of man. -1 Thess 4:16 For the Lord himself, with a cry of command, with the archangel's call and with the sound of God's trumpet, will descend from heaven. -1 Cor 15:22 The trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable. Or the verse could refer to the future, as the Gloss says, with the idea: You will roar like the lion -Isaiah 5:29 Their roaring is like a lion, like young lions they roar.

the earth trembled
the earth will shudder

76: Here is the instillation of fear into the whole world, with three points: (1) the instillation of this fear, (2) the utility of this: "and was still", (3) the time: "when God arose". The idea is: The judgment was preached, and when that was heard, the earth, that is, earthly man, trembled -Amos 3:8 The lion has roared; who will not fear? -Job 23:15 When I consider, I am in dread of him.

and was still,
and fall still.

76: And was still, abandoning sin and idolatry and converting to the faith of God. -Is 13:11 I will put an end to the pride of the arrogant, which will occur also in the future, at the fulfilment of Matthew 24:7 There will be earthquakes in some places. Men will also be afraid -Wis 5:2 When the unrighteous see them, they will be shaken with dreadful fear. And was still, that is, the sinner will desist from sinning, whether he likes it or not, even though he may not rest from the penalty. -Cassiodorus: That stillness is without rest, for they will stop doing bad deeds, but in their torment they will not rest, that is, those who are tortured by eternal fire. -Zephaniah 1:17 I will bring such distress upon people that they shall walk like the blind; because they have sinned against Yahweh. They will then disist and stop talking all together. -1 Sam 2:9 The wicked shall be cut off in darkness.

10. When God arose in judgment, to save all the meek of the earth.
When you arise for the judgment, God, to save all the meek of the earth,

76: Here is the time when this fear will come upon the world, and it is after the Resurrection. There are two points: (1) the resurrection of Christ, (2) a plan for an excellent future judgment and the salvation of the good: "to save". The idea is: The earth trembled and then lay still, but when? When God arose, that is, from the dead, as God to come once again in judgment, which was prefigured in that historical earthquake which took place at Christ's resurrection. -Mat 28:2 And suddenly there was a great earthquake, as an angel of the Lord came down from heaven. At the end, however, especially when Christ rises up to judge, the wicked will get to know his power. -Ps 9:17 May Yahweh be known by the judgment he passes. -Wis 4:20 They will come with dread when their sins are reckoned up. -Ps 9:20 Arise, Yahweh, lest men should boast. Or when God arose in judgment, when he comes to sit with the good and the evil -Joel 4:2 I shall gather all the nations together and take them down to the Valley of Jehoshaphat, there I shall put them on trial.

But why all this? To save, by that fear which is fruitful for the whole world, not everyone, but all the meek of the earth., who will openly receive the teaching that is preached to them. -James 1:21Welcome with meekness the implanted word that has the power to save your souls and give you the land of the living. -Ps 37:11 But the have-nots shall inherit the land. -Mat 5:5 Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth. -Zephaniah 2:3 Seek Yahweh, all you humble of the land.

11. For the thought of man shall give praise to thee: and the remainders of the thought shall keep holiday to thee.
they will praise you for your rage with mankind; the survivors of your rage will gather round you.

76:3.1 Here is a concluding admonition for all to pay their vows to God and be subject to him; this is in three points: (1) He entices, (2) He admonishes: "Vow", (3) He shows that it is necessary to follow the admonition: "To him that is terrible". He proposes two things to entice or persuade people to make vows to God and carry them out: (1) accepting the chance to confess sins and have them forgiven, (2) God's pleasure in their detesting those sins: "and the remainders". The idea is: Judgment was preached to the world, but, O Lord, because the thought of man, who is thinking of confessing his sins and having them forgiven, will confess to you. You will evaluate his confession so as to dismiss immediately his punishment. -Ps 32:5 I said, "I shall confess, Most High, my offenses, Yahweh," and you forgave my guilt and sin. -Prov 28:13 One who confesses and forsakes his sins will obtain mercy. Or he will confess to you a confession of praise. Even to accuse himself of sin and judge himself to be a sinner is to give praise to God. -Joshua 7:19 My son, give glory to Yahweh God of Israel and make confession to him. Tell me now what you have done; do not hide it from me.

And the remainders of thought, that is, the remaining thoughts, after those spend in recalling and constantly going over one's guilt so as to diminish it or wipe it out altogether, will make a feast day for you. They will be happy and festive days for you, just on any feast day. -Luke 15:7 Just so, I tell you, there will be more joy in heaven over one sinner who repents etc. To think of the destruction of sin is a manly thought. -Is 32:8 But those who are noble plan noble things. So the feast of Easter becomes the feast of the Jews, that is, of those who confess. -John 6:4 Now the Passover, the festival of the Jews, was near. And since that is so, vow and pay to the Lord.

Another interpretation could refer this to the preceding, with the idea: You will save the meek of the earth, and that is right, because the thought of man, who is meek, since man is a meek animal by nature, will confess to you by making a confession of interior praise, and the remainders of thought, that is, the good works left from these thoughts, with all the servile works of sin rejected -John 8:34 Everyone who commits sin is a slave to sin- will make a feast day for you, so as to praise you by life, work behavior -Ps 146:2 May I praise Yahweh all my life, sing to my God while I have being.

12. Vow ye, and pay to the Lord your God:
Make and fulfil your vows to Yahweh your God.

76:3.2.1 Here he admonishes, showing: (1) the admonition itself, (2) to whom it is directed: "all you that are around". He admonishes: (1) to make vows, (2) to fulfil them: "and pay". The idea is: Since all the preceding is so, make vows and then pay them to the Lord your God. But if vows are voluntary, how can he command them? We must distinguish two kinds of vows: those that concern what is necessary for salvation, such as to renounce the devil and his pomps, and the rest that is promised in baptism. Such vows are more a recognition of a debt than a vow properly speaking. Such a vow falls under precept, and that is what he is talking about here. There is another kind of vow which is supererogatory, such as to preserve virginity, to enter the cloister, and the like. He is not speaking of that here, nor is he commanding it. If someone wants to take the verse as referring to this kind of vow, he should read the verse conjunctively, that is, "If you vow, then fulfil them." -Deuteronomy 23:21 If you make a vow to Yahweh your God, do not postpone fulfilling it. For God is not happy with an unfaithful and stupid promise. -Deut 23:23 Whatever your lips utter you must diligently perform, just as you have freely vowed to Yahweh.

all you that are round about him bring presents.
Let all those around him bring gifts

76:3.2.2 Here he shows to whom the admonition is directed. The idea is: Fulfil your vows, all you who bring acceptable presents, that is, yourselves, who are around him, with him in your midst. For he is in the midst of those who worship him and who fulfil their vows to him. -Mat 18:20 Where two or three are gathered in my name, I am there among them. -Rev 7:17 The Lamb at the center of the throne will be their shepherd. This is the good circle, yet it seems properly to apply to priests who go around the altar and offer sacrosanct gifts. Therefore the priest says that Psalm verse (26:6): I have washed my hands in innocence, to march around your altar, Yahweh. -Cassiodorus: Things are done in a circle when the gifts of the faithful are offered on the holy altar. -Rom 12:1 I appeal to you therefore to present your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God. -Is 19:21 The Egyptians will know Yahweh on that day, and will worship with sacrifice and burnt offering, and they will make vows Yahweh and perform them.

To him that is terrible,
to the One Who Sees.

76: Here he shows the necessity of fulfilling vows from two qualities of God to whom the vows are made: (1) awesomeness and (2) power. His awesomeness instills fear; his power humbles heights. The idea is: Fulfil your vows to him as you are obliged. He is the awesome or terrifying One. -Dan 9:4 Ah, Lord, great and awesome God. -Ps 76:8 You alone strike terror, and who can stand your fury.

13. Even to him who taketh away the spirit of princes:
He fathoms the mind of princes;

76: This is about his power: (1) with regard to princes who rule over fewer people, (2) with regard to kings who rule over more: "to the terrible". The idea is: Pay your vows to the Terrifying One, who takes away the spirit, that is, the pride and elation of princes, humbling them. -Job 6:4 The arrows of the Almighty are in me; my spirit, that is, my elation an pride, drinks their poison. Or the verse can be taken literally, he takes away the spirit, that is, the soul, when he wants. -Ps 104:29 Take back your spirit, they die. -Dan 5:23 You have given no glory to theGod in whose hands are your breath itself and all your fortunes. He is the one who, when he wishes, commands and it is done. -Num 25:4 Take all the chiefs of the people, and impale them.

to the terrible with the kings of the earth.
he is fearsome to the kings of the earth.

76: These are greater than princes and terrifying to others. -Job 25:2 Dominion and fear are with God. He has power to cast them from their royal dignity if he wants, and this often happens. -Sir 10:9 All power goes fast (Vul). -Is 22:19 I will thrust you from your office, and you will be pulled down from your post. He also is terrifying because he can condemn to eternal punishment. Although Paul says (Heb 10:31) It is a horrible thing to fall into the hands of the living God, it is more horrible for princes. -Wis 6:5 He will come upon you terribly and swiftly, because severe judgment falls on those in high places.

There are also good kings, from whom the spirit of pride is removed and who are filled with the spirit of humility so that they can correct themselves properly. -Prov 21:1 The king's heart is a stream of water in the hand of Yahweh; he turns it wherever he will. Such fear God and are horror-struck at the prospect spoken of by the Lord -Luke 12:5 But I will warn you whom to fear: fear him who, after he has killed, has authority to cast into hell. Yes, I tell you, fear him! -Isaiah 8:13 But Yahweh of hosts, him you shall regard as holy; let him be your fear, and let him be your dread, so that you can persevere in sanctification until you come to glory, to which may He bring us etc.