Psalm 8

Yahweh our Lord, * how glorious is your name * through all the earth!
    I will adore your majesty * above the heavens, * with the lips of nursing babies.
    You built a fortress for your dwelling, * having silenced your adversaries, * the enemy and
            the avenger.
        When I see your heavens, * the work of your fingers,
        the moon and the stars * which you created:
           What is man that you should think of him, * or the son of man that you should care for him?
        Yet you made him a little less than the gods; * with honor and glory you crowned him.
        You made him lord over the works of your hands, * put all things at his feet:
    Small and large cattle together, * along with the beasts of the savanna,
    the birds of the sky and fish of the sea, * crossing the routes of the seas.
Yahweh our Lord, * how glorious is your name through all the earth!

1. Unto the end, for the presses: a psalm for David.

8:0 This is the eighth Psalm, the seventh with a title, which is "Unto the end, for the presses: a psalm for David." As usual, this title expresses the usefulness of the Psalm and its author. It also points to the matter of the Psalm, which is the presses. These are not material wine-presses, but spiritual, namely the churches, because of their function, which is similar. Just as a material wine-press separates wine from dregs, so in the churches a threefold wine is separated from many sorts of dregs. This happens first in teaching: Just as wine is contained in a flask, so doctrinal truth is contained in the sound and voice coming from the teacher. But, as wine is poured out and the dregs remain behind, so truth flows into the hearts of the listeners, while the voice remains outside. -Rom 10:17 Faith comes from hearing.

Likewise, good wine is good men, and bad wine is bad men. Just as wine-presses separate wine from dregs, so in the Church the good are distinguished and separated from the bad by their merits. Later they will be in a separate place, as the just will be stored in the Lord's cellar, while the evil are thrown out. -As for the just, Cant 1: 3 The king brought me into his cellar. As for the evil, Rev 22:15 Outside are the dogs, the fortune-tellers and all who love and do evil (Vul).

The third wine is the human soul, which the body corresponds as the dregs. This wine is purified and brought to the cellar when the souls of the saints in the Church undergo suffering and martyrdom and are separated from their bodies, to be storded in the eternal cellars.

Therefore this Psalm was composed for the wine-presses, that is, for the many churches spread here and there, which are rightly called wine-presses.

The connection of this Psalm with the preceding is clear, since in that one he promised to praise God for a benefit received, and here he fulfils that promise and praises God for the spread of the Church and its multiplication into many particular and distinct churches. This cause of this Church spreading is the exaltation of Christ.

This Psalm has two parts. (1) The first is about Christ and his exaltation according to his divinity. (2) The second is about his exaltation according to his humanity: What is man? The first part makes two points: (1) First, it admires and extols the greatness of the whole Trinity. (2) Secondly, it shows the reason for this greatness and exaltation.

2. O Lord, our Lord, how admirable is thy name in the whole earth!
Yahweh our Lord, how glorious is your name through all the earth!

8:1.1 So he says Lord, because of his power of creation, to which reverence is due. -Malachi 1:6 If I am your Lord, where is my respect? But he is our God through our spiritual worship. -Gen 28:21 Yahweh will be my God. Lev 26:13 I broke the bar of your yoke, to make you walk upright. How admirable is your name, that is, your name of dominion and power. So I am the Lord, and that is my name, not only in Judea or some particular land, as the Donatists say of Africa, but in all the earth. -Ps 67:8 Let all the ends of the earth fear him. This is the name mentioned to Jacob -Gen 32:30 Why do you ask for my name which is wonderful. This refers to the whole Trinity, but can also refer to the person of the Father. Christ is like a name to him, because, as a person becomes known through his name, the Father became known to the whole world through Christ. -Is 30:27 See, the name of the Lord came from afar. This is the wonderful name spoken of in Isaiah 9:6 His name will be called Wonderful. -Sirach 43:29 The Lord is awesome and very great and his power is amazing. And it can refer to the Son, who is the Father's strength and power. -1 Cor 1:24 We preach Christ, God's power and God's wisdom. This name is truly wonderful, because God the Father worked wonderful things through him. -Is 25:1 Yahweh my God, I exalt you and praise your name, because you worked wonders. The Son is also wonderful, because he was wonderfully made. -Sirach 43:2 A wonderful vessel, the work of the Most High. -Sirach 43:18 The eye admires the beauty of its color and the heart goes extatic at its rain, not only on one land, but on the whole earth. For it is the land of the living, that is, the Empyrean heaven, referred to in Psalm 142:6 My portion in the land of the living. The Son of God was wonderful in that land by his ascending, so that the inhabitants of that land are said to be amazed at him. -Is 63:1 Who is this who comes from Edom, from Bosra with his garments reddened? And there is the land of the dead, which is hell, referred to by Job 10:21 Before I go and do not return. In that land he was also wonderful by descending, to deliver his own people from limbo. So the inhabitants of that land exclaim in admiration, Who is that king of glory? (Ps 24). And this world is the land of mortals. -Is 30:6 The burden of beasts in the land of tribulation and trouble. The beasts are those who are loaded with temporal things, who literally are living with tribulation and trouble. In this world he was wonderful by teaching, and still more wonderful by his action. Therefore it is said elsewhere about the Son of Man, He will rule from sea to sea, and from the Euphrates to the end of the earth (Ps 72:8). The many reasons why Christ is wonderful were mentioned in commenting on Psalm 4: "Know that the Lord has glorified his Holy One."

For thy magnificence is elevated above the heavens.
I will adore your majesty above the heavens,

8:1.2.1 Having spoken of the admiration and exaltation of the whole Trinity, here the reason for this exaltation is given, and this in two points: the exaltation of the Son by his ascension, and the preaching of the Apostles: "From the mouth of infants." So what he is saying is: The Lord God made his wonderful name known throughout the earth, and that because of your magnificence, that is, your Son, the God-man. He is called magnificent actively, because he glorified you. -John 17:4 I have glorified you on earth, and this sometimes by divine wisdom -John 8:6 He wrote on the ground with his finger. He is magnificent passively, whom you glorified by crying throughout the world, Glorify the Lord with me (Ps 34:4), extoling him and showing him to be true God. -John 13:31 Now the Son of Man is glorified. -John 17:5 Glorify me, Father, with the glory I had with you before the world existed. You also glorified him by pouring into him, in so far as he is man, grace without measure. -Rom 8:30 Those he justified he glorified. With all the more reason, he glorified the one whom he did not justify by turning from a wicked to a good man, but made good at the moment of his conception. -John 3:34 God gave his Son the Spirit without measure. In his assumed humanity, this magnificence was literally elevated above the material heavens. -Micha 2:13 He will ascend, opening the way before them. -Ps 68:19 You have gone up on high, above the three heavens, the airy, the starry, and the Empyreum. -2 Cor 12:2 I know a man caught up to the third heaven. His ascending above the heavens is also ascending above the Scriptures, because written words are insufficient to tell all of his greatness. -Is 34:4 The heavens will be rolled up like a book. His ascending above the heavens is also above the heights of the angels. -Ez 10:18 The glory of the Lord stood over the Cherubim. -1 Pet 3:22 He went up to heaven, with angels, powers and authorities subject to him. It is not surprising that it is so elevated, for your magnificence is an eagle. -Job 39:27 At your command the eagle will go up and make its nest in the heights. It is born to fly -Job 5:7 Man was born for work, and the eagle for flying (Vul)- in the ascension. -Eph 4:10 He ascended over all the heavens, so as to fill all things.

3. Out of the mouth of infants and of sucklings thou hast perfected praise,
with the lips of nursing babies. You built a fortress for your dwelling,

8: This is the second reason for the exaltation, namely, the preaching of the Apostles and of apostolic men. Three points are made: (1) Which ministers are used for preaching and spreading the praise of God, (2) Why through them: "Because of the enemies" (3) In what way through them: "When I see your heavens". So what he says is: So you are wonderful because of the elevation of your magnificence. Thereupon you have perfected -that that is, you will perfect, using the past for the prophet's certitude of the future- praise, that is the diffusion of your praise, from the mouths of infants, who lack human eloquence, and sucklings, that is, those who have simple doctrine, not secular wisdom and astuteness. -1 Cor 1:21 God was pleased to save the believers through the stupidity of preaching. -Is 32:4 The heart of the stupid will understand wisdom (Vul). -Wis 10:21 Wisdom opened the mouth of the deaf and made the tongues of infants eloquent. The infants and sucklings are said to be the Apostles because of their innocence and lack of malice. -1 Cor 14:20 Do not be children in understanding, but be little in malice. By of the simplicity of the teaching which they loved, they taught others how to have it. -1 Cor 3:2 I gave you milk to drink, not food. -1 Pet 2:2 Like new-born babies crave the rational guileless milk, so that by it you may grow in salvation. This praise was begun by the Patriarchs, increased with the Prophets and was perfected with the Apostles and apostolic men. These were prefigured in the children of Jerusalem who praised Christ and received him with honor (Mt 21). The Lord knew that the Psalmist had prophetically predicted both the symbol, which was the praise of the children, and the reality symbolized, which was the preaching of the Apostles. Therefore he used this quotation to refute the blaming of the children (Mt 21:16).

because of thy enemies, that thou mayst destroy the enemy and the avenger.
having silenced your adversaries, the enemy and the avenger.

8: Here is given the reason why praise should be through them, and in two ways (1) with regard to confuting enemies generally, (2) by distinguishing the different types of enemies. For some are simply unbelievers; these are simply enemies. Others are unbelivers and also persecute the Faith; these are called avengers. So what he says is: You will perfect praise through such people, and that is to confute your enemies, so that you will destroy the enemy, that is, any unbeliever, and the avenger, that is, any defender of unbelief. -Phil 3:18 Many behave, as I have told you and now say with tears, as enemies of the cross of Christ. -Sirach 36:9 Exalt the adversary (Vul), that is, Christ, who is the adversary of the evil, and afflict the enemy, that is, any unbeliever or opponent of the Faith. Besides these enemies, the enemies of the Lord are the proud. -Ps 74:23 The pride of those who hate you goes up always (Vul). -Job 15:25-26 He raised his hand against the Lord, and acted big against Shaddai. He ran against him with a stiff neck. -James 4:4 Whoever wishes to be a friend of this world will be an enemy of God. The devils are also enemies. -Mt 13:28 An enemy did this, that is, the devil.

4. For I will behold thy heavens,
When I see your heavens,

8: Here he shows how exaltation will come about through such people. This is because they will become great and will do great things. Two points are made: (1) First he says that he will provide how great they will be, (2) secondly how great are the things they will do: "the moon". The first point contains two items: (1) first how great they will be, (2) that they will not be great by themselves, but by God: "the works". So what he says is: Truly you will perfect praise and confute your enemies through these preachers and Apostles. These are the heavens spoken of in Psalm 19:2 The heavens declare the glory of God. They are called heavens because of the loftiness of their lives -Phil 3:20 Our homeland is in heaven- and also because of their beauty and order -Job 26:13 His spirit made the heavens luminous- and because of the outpouring of doctrine -Is 45:8 Heavens, send dew from above -and because of their continual motion, for they continually do good without getting tired, just as the heavens move continually -Is 40:31 They run and do not grow weary, they go and do not get tired- and because of the coordination of their motion. -Job 38:33 Did you know the order of the heavens? -1 Cor 14:40 Let everything be done properly and in order.

the works of thy fingers:
the work of your fingers,

8: as if to say, I will look at the heavens, but not as if made so great by themselves, but they are the work of your fingers. He does not say "your works" or "the works of your hands", but "the works of your fingers", to show the diligence of the worker as well as the skill and order of the job and the end product. For the works of God are all creatures. -Ps 33:9 He spoke and they were made. But the works of his hands are rational creatures made in his likeness. -Is 64:7 Yahweh, you are the potter and we are the clay and we are all the work of your hands. But the works of your fingers are especially the Apostles. Note that the word "fingers" is sometimes used for three persons: Is 40:12 Who measured the mass of the earth with three fingers? (Vul), and sometimes it refers to God's wisdom. -Luke 11:20 If I cast out demons by the finger of God.

the moon
the moon

8: Here he shows what great things they will do, since they are to organize the Church (1) universally, (2) to found special churches: "and stars", and (3) that they will do this not on their own, but as ministers: "which you have founded". So his message is: I will look at the heavens and the moon, that is, the Church organized by them. The moon is called the Church because it illuminates the night, that is, the dark behavior of sinners, by the rays of preaching and teaching. -Eph 5:8 You were once darkness, but now light in the Lord. The Church receives light from the true sun, Christ. -Mal 4:2 The sun of justice will rise for you who fear God (Vul).

and the stars which thou hast founded.
and the stars which you created:

8: The stars are the particular churches. -Rev5:1 etc. John saw at the right hand of the one sitting on the throne seven stars, that is, the special churches. Any special church is called a star, because it appears small because of humility, but it is great in power, and it shines by good action and teaching. Both the moon and the stars you founded, that is, you are the source, and they are the ministers. You founded them by laying your Son as the first foundation, -1 Cor 3:11 No one can lay any other foundation than that which is set, namely, Jesus Christ-- while setting the Apostles as a second foundation. -Sirach 16:24 Eternal foundations (Vul), that is, the Apostles upon the solid rock, which is Christ. -1 Cor 10:4 But the rock was Christ. -Eph 2:20 Built upon the foundation of the Apostles and Prophets, with Christ Jesus himself as the cornerstone.

5. What is man, that thou art mindful of him?
What is man that you should think of him,

8:2 This is the second part of the Psalm, which talks of the exaltation of human nature in Christ. Three points are made: (1) the humiliation of human nature, so that its exaltation may be seen as more wondrous, (2) the elevation of human nature in Christ: "Glory and honor", (3) a repetition of divine praise: "Lord, our Lord". The first point has two items: (1) to show the humiliation of human nature in itself, (2) to show it in comparison to the angels: "You have made him less than". The first item touches on: (1) the humiliation of human nature in carnal men, (2) the same in spiritual men: "or the son of man".

8: So he says, expressing wonder, Lord, what is man, since he is so vile and miserable, that you should think of him?, by taking pity on his misery. In other words, the misery of carnal man is so great that it is not worthy of your pity. -Gen 6:3 My spirit will not remain forever in man, because he is flesh. Note that man's misery is of two kinds: bodily and spiritual. And spiritual misery is of two kinds: ignorance and sin. The misery of sin is of two kinds: the certainty of guilt, and the uncertainty of obtaining forgiveness. The certainty of guilt is of two kinds: (1) guilt at the embarkement of life -Ps 51:7 See, I was conceived in iniquity. -Job 14:4 Who can make clean one conceived from unclean seed? (Vul), and (2) guilt as one goes on in life, with the consciousness that he cannot live without sinning. -Rom 7:19 The evil that I do not want I do. -Is 64:5 All our works of justice are like the pad of a menstruous woman. -Job 25:5 The stars are not clean in his sight. He is uncertain of obtaining forgiveness, because he does not know in what state he will end his life. -Qoheleth 9:12 Man does not know his end-time, but as fish are captured in a net and birds in a trap, so the sons of men are captured at a bad time. The misery of ignorance is of three kinds: (1) of oneself -Hosea 7:9 Foreigners consumed his strength, and he was unaware. (2) of one's neighbor -Jer 17:9 The heart is most devious of all and depraved. Who can understand it? (3) of God -Hosea 4:1 There is no knowledge of God on earth.

Bodily misery consists of five things: (1) weakness of nature -Job 25:6 Man is a maggot, the son of man a worm. -Job 17:14 I said to the pit, 'You are my father,' and to the worms, 'You are my mother and sisters'. (2) shortness of life -Job 14:5 Man's days are cut short. (3) instability of life -Job 14:2 Like a flower one blossoms and withers, fleeting as a shadow, transient. (4) The variety of his miseries: Now he is hungry, then he is thirsty. Now he is cold, then he is hot. -Job 14:1 Man, born of woman, lives a short while full of misery. (5) the necessity of dying. -Qoheleth 5:15 Another evil is that he must go as he came.

or the son of man, that thou visitest him?
or the son of man that you should care for him?

8: That is, some man has already become spiritual, namely the son of new-man, Christ, that you should visit him. You not only think of him from afar, but you come close by visiting him. -Gen 37:13-14 Come, I will send you… go and see if everything is all right with your brothers and with the sheep. Moses visited his own people -Ex 3. -Luke 1:78 The dawn from on high visited us. He visited in five ways: (1) as a doctor visits a patient -Ps 106:4 Visit us with your salvation. (2) as a redeemer visits a captive -Luke 1:68 He has visited and redeemed his people. (3) as a father goes after an erring son and beats him -Ps 89:33 I will visit their iniquities with a rod. (4) as a friend to a friend, giving gifts of grace -Job 10:12 Your visit protected my spirit. (5) Finally, he visits as a judge weighing merits -Zeph 1:12 I will visit Jerusalem with a search light and will visit the men settling in their dregs.

6. Thou hast made him a little less than the angels,
Yet you made him a little less than the gods;

8:2.1.2 Here he shows the humiliation of human nature in comparison with the angels, saying: As human nature was humiliated in carnal and spiritual men, so also you diminished man, or the son of man, i.e. Christ, who is called the son of man -Mt 16:13 Whom do they say the Son of Man is? and Luke 21:27 Then they will see the Son of Man coming on a cloud. -Luke 18:8 When the Son of Man comes, do you think he will find faith on earth? You made him a little less than the angels. This does not contradict what we said earlier, that human nature in Christ was exalted above everything. That refers to its ascension or to its union with the divine nature. But the statement at hand refers to the state of corruption and vulnerability. -Heb 2:7 You made him a little less than the angels. -Phil 2:7 He emptied himself, taking the form of a slave.

Note that two words indicate diminution: the verb (minuisti) and the adverb (minus). The second accentuates the first, meaning that the diminution is reduced, that is, the difference from the angels is very little.

thou hast crowned him with glory and honour:
with honor and glory you crowned him.

8:2.2.1 After speaking of humiliation as a cause or occasion, here exaltation is presented as the effect. -Luke 14:11 & 18:14 Everyone who humbles himself will be exalted. Two points are made: (1) the exaltation itself, (2) the manner of exaltation: "And you established him". The exaltation is twofold: (1) considered absolutely in itself, which is the glorification of human nature, and (2) relative, which is the conferral of honor above other creatures: "and honor". So the idea is: You are mindful of man and visit him in reality, because you crowned him with the glory of incorruption and with the honor of reverence shown by others from all sides. -Is 62:3 And you will be a crown of glory, that is, crowned with glory, in the hand of the Lord, and a royal diadem in the palm of your God. Note that Christ has a fourfold crown: (1) The first is that of mercy, with which he was crowned in his birth and when he accepted to be circumcized in our nature. -Cant 3:11 Daughters of Zion, go out and see king Solomon crowned with the crown that his mother put on him. (2) The second is that of misery, with which he was crowned by his step-mother, that is the Synagogue, in his Passion. -John 19:2 The soldiers wove a crown of thorns and put it on his head. -Is 22:18 He will crown you with tribulation (Vul). (3) The third is that of glory, with which he was crowned in his Resurrection. -Ps 21:6 Glory and honor you place on him. -Sirach 45:12 a gold crown on his turban. (4) The fourth is the conferral of honor, which he will receive on the day of judgment by the multitude of those who are saved, who surround him like a crown. -Job 29:25 I will sit like a king among his troops. -Sirach 50:12 Crowned with the circle of his brothers, as a cedar of Lebnon is by its foliage.

7. And hast set him over the works of thy hands.
You made him lord over the works of your hands,

8: Here is told the manner of exaltation, especially concerning honor, and there are two items: (1) first the collation of dignity above every creature, and (2) the collation of power: "You put everything under his feet". The idea is: Truly you crowned him with honor, because you established him, by giving him dignity over the works of your hands, that is, both hands. For there a hand of mercy, referred to in Psalm 104:28 You open your hand and they are filled with goodness. And there is the hand of justice. -Is 5:25 The anger of Yahweh burned against his people and he stretched out his hand and struck them… and his hand remained outstretched. Therefore it is said in Col 1:15 He is the first born of every creature.

8. Thou hast subjected all things under his feet,
put all things at his feet:

8: Here is shown the power of the human nature in Christ over every creature, first universally and indistinctly, secondly particularly and distinctly: "the sheep and cattle". The idea is: You gave the Son of Man greater dignity than every creature, and also gave him power, because you put everything, not just some things, under his feet, giving him power over them. -Heb 2:8 In subjecting everything to him, he left nothing not subjected. -1 Cor 15:27 When he said everything was subjected to him, it is clear that this excludes the one who subjected everything to him. The feet of Christ refers to his humanity, just as his head to his divinity. -1 Cor 11:3 The head of Christ is God. -Is 60:13 I will glorify the place of my feet, that is, the womb of the Virgin. So everything has been placed under his humanity. -Ps 110:1 Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies your footstool. -1 Cor 1:25 What is weak on God's part is stronger than all men. This is not surprising, because the Apostles and apostolic men, who are much more remote feet of God than the humanity of Christ, carry him throughout the world. -Is 26:6 The feet of the needy will tread on it. -Is 52:7 How beautiful are the feet of him who announces and preaches peace. -Mat 24:47 He will place him, the faithful servant, over all his possessions. But there is a difference, because Christ as man is the Lord of all creatures, with power to do whatever he wants with them, whereas others become lords to manage creatures as they want.

all sheep and oxen:
Small and large cattle together,

8: Here he distinguishes all creatures, showing that he has power over (1) the good, and (2) also the bad: "moreover the beasts". The good are of two types: (1) those who spend their time only for God, such as the angels or men, and these are symbolized by the sheep, or (2) those, whether angels or men, who look after the needs of their neighbors, and these are the cattle. The idea is: You subjected everything to him, including innocent and simple sheep that spend their time for you. -Mt 10:16 I send you as sheep in the midst of wolves. -John 10:14 I know my sheep and they know me. -John 21:17 Feed my sheep. And all cattle, that is, those who are busy with the needs of their neighbors. -Deut 25:4 Do not muzzle an ox that is threashing. These are especially prelates, who are cattle if they are good, because they chew the word of God and the food of life. -Lev 11:26 Any animal that does not have a divided hoof and does not chew its cud is impure. The divided hoof refers to the ability to distinguish good from evil. -Ez 1:7 The hoof of their feet is like that of an ox. They walk maturely. -Ps 35:18 I will praise you in the grave assembly (Vul). They put up with hard work and are useful to others. -Job 1:14 The oxen were ploughing and the donkeys were grazing next to them. -Prov 14:4 A plentiful harvest comes from the strenght of an ox.

moreover, the beasts also of the fields.

along with the beasts of the savanna,

8: Here he shows his power over the evil, in their three kinds: (1) the unchaste, (2) the proud: "and the birds", and (3) the avaricious: "the fish". Properly speaking these are people who do these actions; improperly they are the devils who suggest doing them. So he says, Moreover the beasts of the field, that is the unchaste who wander on the hills of pleasure, he subjected them to him. These are the beasts referred to in Exodus 12:12 I will strike the firstborn of Egypt from man to beast. -Joel 1:17 The animals rotted in their shit (Vul). These beasts walk through the fields of licence and openness to sinning. -Mat 7:13 Wide is the way that leads to perdition.

9. The birds of the air,
the birds of the sky

8: The birds of heaven, namely the proud who fly high. These also you subjected to him, whether they like it or not. The birds are said to be the proud, like the devils who have control over them. -Mat 13:4 & Luke 8:5 The birds of the sky ate it. -Deut 32:24 Birds will devour them with a most bitter bite (Vul). The prince of the devils wanted to fly like a bird. -Is 14:13 I will ascend over the stars of God; I will raise up my throne. The proud are those who fly after him. -Ps 73:9 They placed their mouth in heaven.

and the fishes of the sea, that pass through the paths of the sea.
and fish of the sea, crossing the routes of the seas.

8: that is, the avaricious, who pass, by discussing with cupidity and curiosity, through the paths of the sea, that is the strict and narrow ways of the sea of this dark world. -Ps 104:25 That great and wide sea which has swimming creatures without number, that is, avaricious people who are without number. -Jer 6:13 From the smallest to the greatest, all are grasping for gain. That is touched on in 1 John 2:16 Whatever is in the world is concupiscence of the flesh, concupiscence of the eyes, and pride of life. -Hab 1:14 You will make men like the fish of the sea. The paths of the sea are also all temporal things, which they follow with their hearts, because they quickly disappear, like the paths in the sea. -Hosea 10:7 Samaria made her king go away like foam on the water (Vul). -They all disappear like a ship in the middle of the sea (cf. Wis 5:10).

10. O Lord, our Lord, how admirable is thy name in the whole earth!
Yahweh our Lord, how glorious is your name through all the earth!

8:2.3 This is the happy conclusion, with praise and admiration. This Psalm is called "periodic", because it ends with the same words it began with. It is completely periodic, because it repeats the whole first verse, unlike Psalms which are partly periodic, such as Psalms 103 and 104 ("Bless the Lord, my soul"), etc. This is done to show, at the cumulation of praise, that the one whom the Psalmist addresses and about whom he speaks is the beginning and end of everything. -Rev 1:8 I am the beginning and the end. Interpret this verse as the first.