|When I call, answer me, * God of my vindication;|
in a jam, clear my way; * have pity on me and hear my prayer.
| Men of rank, how long * must my Glorious One be insulted?|
How long will you worship superstition * or consult false gods.
Know that Yahweh will work wonders for his worshiper, * that Yahweh will hear me
when I call to him.
| Be disquieted, but do not sin; * examine your hearts; * go to bed and weep.|
Offer legitimate sacrifices * and trust in Yahweh.
| Many keep saying, * “Who will show us rain?|
the light of your face * has fled from us, Yahweh.”
Put happiness in my heart; * now let their wheat and their wine increase.
|In his peaceful presence, * I shall lie down and sleep,|
for you alone, Yahweh, * make my repose secure.
1. Unto the end, in verses. A psalm for David.
4:0 Psalm 4 has the third title: Unto the end, in verses, a Psalm of David. To understand this, note carefully that the Gloss states that there are many meanings to the word "end". (1) One of these is the end of time. -1 Cor 10:11 The ends of the ages have come to us. (2) There is also the end of place. -Wis 8:1 She reaches mightily from one end of the earth to the other. (3) There is that of accomplishment. -Rom 10:4 Christ is the end of the law. -Isaiah 32:2 The vintage will fail; the fruit harvest will not come. (4) And there is the final cause. -Rev 1:8 I am the Alpha and the Omega etc., the beginning and the end.
As for the relation of this Psalm to the preceding, Psalm 1 talks about happiness, Psalm 2 about the tribulation through which one comes to happiness, Psalm 3 about the suffering of Christ, which is the reason why tribulation becomes the way to happiness, and Psalm 4 is about the influence of Christ, the Head, on the members of his body. In this way it is seen that they are drawn by him to glory. -John 3:8 No one goes up to heaven except the one who came down from heaven etc.
The Psalm is divided into three parts: (1) The first shows the good communicated from the Head to the members. (2) The second is a rebuke of those who turn away to lower and vain things; no good is communicated to them: "O sons of men." (3) The third is an exhortation to those just rebuked to convert to Christ from whom these good things come, so that they may receive them: "Know that……" The first part has three points: (1) The first shows that a good beginning comes from Christ. (2) The second is that from him also comes progress towards the good: "When I was in distress." (3) The third is a request to attain the good, implying that this also is from him: "Have mercy on me."
2. When I called upon him, the God of my justice heard me:
When I call, answer me, God of my vindication;
4:1.1 So he says, "Truly the fruit of my passion and victory is salvation and blessing, because when I called, not exteriorly from the mouth, but interiorly from the heart, the God of my justice heard me. -Joel 2:32 Everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved. The one calling, however, already has in mind what he is calling for. The one who has it in mind either is in sin and desires to have it, or is in grace and desires to have more; otherwise he would not call, and would not be heard if he prays. So Augustine says that anyone who calls on someone he does not have in mind has no regard for him; so God would come to punish him and not to give him grace. But it is not surprising that God should hear someone who calls from within himself, because he has ears for the desires of one who calls from the heart. -Ps 34:15 His ears are open to their cry. -10:17 You will hear the desire of the meek; you will strengthen their heart, you will incline your ear. Therefore it is said, Isaiah 65:24 Before they call I will answer, while they are yet speaking I will hear.
Note that (1) sometimes God gives heed to the petition, that is, he grants what is asked for, but not to the petitioner's merit. Thus he agreed with the request of the demons to enter the pigs (Mat 8:32). (2) Sometimes he heeds the petition and the merit, but delays the result, as when the Fathers of the Old Testament asked for eternal life. He heard them when they asked, and gave them the merit of eternal life, but not at once its realization, because they first had to go down to limbo and wait for the passion of Christ, who then freed them. -Zech 9:11 As for you also, because of the blood of my covenant with you, I will set your prisoners free from the waterless pit. (3) Sometimes he answers the petition, the merit and the result, as he does to modern saints. -Luke 11:9 Ask, and it will be given to you.
Therefore, when I called, the God of my justice heard me, by granting, conserving, giving growth and the reward. For everything is from him. -James 1:17 All that is good, all that is perfect, is given us from above. -1 Cor 4:7 What do you have that you did not receive?
when I was in distress, thou hast enlarged me.
in a jam, clear my way;
4:1.2 Note that he has changed to the second person and is addressing the Lord, to show the fervor of his spirit and to show that his heart is with the one he is telling others about. The meaning is: "Thus he heard me, giving me justice and, after giving it to me, fosters it by expanding it in me. I then turn to him and confess, in the distress which I suffered in my body, you enlarged me, giving me joy of mind. This is the enlargement experienced by the one who said (Rom 5:3 Let us boast of tribulation, knowing that tribulation produces endurance etc. This is the expansion James wished us to have (James 1:2) Whenever you face trials, consider it pure joy.
Note that the evil have their own kind of expansion, in three ways: (1) That of the heart, which dries up and desires riches. -Hosea 10:2 Their heart is false; now they must bear their guilt. (2) That of the mouth, by distraction and fixaction. -Ps 35:21 They open wide their mouths against me. -Jer 9:3 They bend their tongues like bows; they have grown strong in the land for falsehood. (3) And that of work: -Mat 23:5 They make their phylacteries broad and their fringes long.
The good also expand in many ways: (1) In heart and in speech. -2 Cor 6:11 We have spoken frankly to you Corinthians, opening up in preaching; our heart is wide open to you, in love. (2) In deeds. -Ps 18:36 You gave me a wide place for my steps under me. Just as a hammer does not destroy gold or silver, but spreads it, so tribulation does the same to the just man.
Have mercy on me:
have pity on me and hear my prayer.
4:1.3.1 This is a request for perfect fulfillment, and has two aspects: (1) the removal of all evil, (2) and the attainment of all good: "Hear my prayer." So he says, "Having called on the Lord, I obtained righteousness and progressed in it. But now, I ask you Lord, have mercy on me, removing all the misery of punishment and sin under which I groaned. -Rom 7:24 Wretched man that I am! Who will rescue me from this body of death? But this is not a request for a total removal of misery in this life, because that is not advantageous. -Acts 14:21 It is through many persecutions that we must enter the kingdom of God. -Mat 7:13 For the gate is narrow and the road is hard that leads to life, and there are few who find it. Bernard comments: "It is a pampered soldier who wishes to enjoy this live and reign with Christ." But the Psalmist prays that this may be realized in the next life.
and hear my prayer.
and hear my prayer.
4:1.3.2 giving me true and unending good things. For prayer is to attain good things, especially eternal ones. Note that (1) there is the prayer of the mouth, which Moses prayed with his hands uplifted (Ex 17), as did Christ (Mat 27:46). (2) And there is the prayer of the heart. -1 Cor 14:15 I will pray with the spirit, but I will pray with the mind also. -John 4:24 God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth. (3) And there is the prayer of deeds. -1 Thes 5:17 Pray without ceasing. The Gloss comments that he does not cease to pray who does not cease to do good.
Note also that (1) there is a prayer from the truth, which the Lord approved of and hears. -Mat 7:8 Everyone who asks receives. (2) And there is a prayer from weakness, which the Lord tolerates and sometimes does not hear, as when Paul asked for the thorn to be removed (2 Cor 12), and sometimes hears, as to have Peter released from prison (Acts 12). And there is a prayer from cupidity, which the Lord also sometimes hears, although he rebukes it as harmful to the petitioner, as when the Jews in the desert asked for meat and were given quails; but, having been heard, they went away condemned, and their prayer became a sin (Ex 16).
3. O ye sons of men, how long will you be dull of heart?
Men of rank, how long must my Glorious One be insulted?
4:2.1 This is the second part of the Psalm, which is a rebuke of the sinners and wicked, coming from God to his creatures that these may have no good influence on the sinners. First of all he rebukes their long-standing inclination to low things; secondly he rebukes their sticking to these things: "Why do you love." Therefore he says, "So many good things flow from God to those who turn to him. Therefore, o sons of men, who culpably desire corruptible goods, -1 Cor 3:3 As long as there is jealousy and quarreling among you, are you not of the flesh, and behaving according to human inclinations?- you will be dull of heart, depressed towards lower things, unable to stand on the heights of faith with a desire for heavenly things, for how long? In saying "dull of heart", an inclination is indicated, in saying "for how long", the duration of this inclination is indicated. -Ps 17:11 They set their eyes to look at the ground (Vul). For guilt is heavy and pulls one to the ground. -Zech 5:7 Wickedness sits on the leaden cover (Vul?). And the Psalmist groans and complains, 38:4 For my iniquities have gone over my head; they weigh like a burden too heavy for me.
Note that there are four kinds of heaviness: (1) that of sin -Isaiah 1:4 Ah, sinful nation, people laden with iniquity. (2) And there is the heaviness of nature -Wis 9:15 A perishable body weighs down the soul. (3) and there is the heaviness of misery, resulting from the first heaviness -Sirach 3:27 A stubborn mind will be burdened by troubles. (4) And there is the heaviness of maturity and grace -Ps 35:18 Then I will thank you in the great congregation; in the mighty (heavy) throng I will praise you.
why do you love vanity, and seek after lying?
How long will you worship superstition or consult false gods.
4:2.2 Here he rebukes the two ways that they stick to evil, (1) by heart and (2) by deed: "And seek after". So he says, Why do you love vanity and seek after lying in deed, since we can gain no good from these things, since earthly things are all empty. -Gen 1:2 The earth was a formless void. -Jer 4:23 I looked on the earth, and lo, it was waste and void. For earthly things are shadows of true goods, and not the substance of what is good. And they are truly empty. For what is emptiness or vanity? It is what does not lend (1) fulness to a container, or (2) support to someone who leans on it, or (3) fruit to one who works on it. Such are earthly things. On the first -Qohaleth 5:10 The lover of money will not be satisfied with money. On the second -Prov 11:28 Those who trust in their riches will wither. -Isaiah 36:6 See, you are relying now on Egypt, that broken reed of a staff. On the third -Qohaleth 5:10 Whoever loves money will not gain any fruit from it (Vul).
Therefore it is said in Qohaleth 1:2 Vanity of vanities! And all is vanity! Anyone who looks for these things is looking for falsehood. -Jer 8:5 They have held fast to deceit, they have refused to return. -Hosea 12:1 Ephraim herds the wind, and pursues the east wind all day long; they multiply falsehood and violence. It is truly falsehood, for they promise security and set loose fear. -Job 15:21 Terrifying sounds are in their ears; in prosperity the destroyer will come upon them. -Ps 89:40 You have laid his strongholds in ruins. Seneca observes: "He sees a poor man and thinks he is a thief; he sees a rich man and thinks he is a plunderer." They promise abundance and set loose hunger. -John 4:13 Everyone who drinks of this water will be thirsty again. They promise pleasure, and set loose puncturing. -Mat 13:7 And thorns grew up. -Job 30:7 They think pleasures are under the thorns (Vul). They promise honor, and set loose shame -Isaiah 30:3 The shelter in the shadow of Egypt will be your humiliation. They promise freedom and bring slavery. -Seneca: "He is less than a slave who fears slaves."
4. Know ye also that the Lord hath made his holy one wonderful:
Know that Yahweh will work wonders for his worshiper,
4:3.1.1 This is the third part of the Psalm, and is a warning for those who have been rebuked to repent and convert to Christ. Three points are made: (1) First, he warns them to repent and convert to Christ. (2) Secondly, he points out an obstacle to this conversion: "Many say". (3) Thirdly, he tries to remove this obstacle: "The light of your countenance". Under the first point he (1) first shows the motivating cause of conversion, that is, what must motivate them principally. (2) Secondly, he shows the formal cause of conversion, that is, how they must repent: "Be angry". (3) Thirdly, he shows the advantage of repentance or conversion: "And hope". Under the first of these he shows two things that should most move them: Christ's excellence and superiority, and then his goodness: "The Lord will hear."
So he says, "If you are foolish and have turned to vain things, and need to be moved to conversion, know that the Lord, God the Father, has made his Holy One wonderful, that is, Christ, who is called the Holy of Holies (Dan 9:23 Vul). For he made him wonderful in his conception, for it was new and wonderful for him to be conceived of a Virgin without a man's semen, and that he was full of knowledge and power from the very instant of his conception. -Jer 31:22 The Lord has created a new thing on the earth: a woman encompasses a man. He made him wonderful in his birth, when he was born without spoiling his Mother's virginity or causing her birth pangs. -Isaiah 66:7 Before she was in labor she gave birth; before her pain came upon her she delivered a son Who has heard of such a thing? Who has seen such things? He made him wonderful in his baptism, transfiguration, passion, resurrection, ascension and sending of the Holy Spirit. -Sirach 36:6 Give new signs, and work other wonders make your hand and right arm glorious, the right arm being the Son. He also made him wonderful in his preaching. -Luke 11:14 The deaf man spoke, and the crowds were amazed. Therefore it is said, Isaiah 9:6 His name will be called wonderful.
the Lord will hear me when I shall cry unto him.
that Yahweh will hear me when I call to him.
4:18.104.22.168 And while he has such excellency and dignity, he also has great piety. "So know that the Lord will hear me, according to my request and my merit, when I call to him. I call not just with my mouth, but also with my heart." He experienced the same thing when he said elsewhere, Ps 119:1 In my distress I cry to the Lord, and he answered me. Or we can read, "My Lord, the Father, will hear me, through the same mediator and advocate, when I call on him, that is the Father, or Christ." -1 John 2:1 We have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous, and he is the atoning sacrifice for our sins.
5. Be ye angry, and sin not: the things you say in your hearts, be sorry for them upon your beds.
Be disquieted, but do not sin; examine your hearts; go to bed and weep.
4:22.214.171.124 Here he teaches the form of repentance, which is double: interior, and exterior: "Offer up the sacrifice". The interior form of repentance also is double: resisting an evil tendency so that it goes no further, and secondly, if it does go forward, to be contrite and sorry. So first he gives a warning to resist such a tendency, and secondly, if it happens to proceed to consent or act, to correct it by repentance.
He says therefore, "If you need to be moved to repentance, be angry, opposing the movement of sin so that it does not result in consent." Therefore he adds, and do not sin, so that your anger may prevent you from sinning.
This kind of anger is good. -Ps 35:5 There is anger in his opposition (Vul). -Isaiah 63:5 My wrath sustained me. This is anger through zeal, which makes the eye of reason purer, and if it sometimes disturbs for a while, it does not blind, like anger that is a vice. This is the anger with which Moses was angry with the idolaters (Ex 32), and Phenehas against the fornication of the Israelites (Num 25), Elijah against the priests of Baal (1 Kings 18), Mattathias against those who sacrificed on the unclean altar (1 Mac 2), the Lord himself against those who were selling and buying in the Temple (John 2), and Peter against the lying property owners, Anaias and Sapphyra (Acts 5).
The things you say in your hearts, by giving consent, and what you do in your rooms, taking delight in evil deeds, be sorry for them. Here to "say in your hearts" means to consent, for just as the speaking of the intellect is understanding, so also the interior spiritual expression of affection is called consent. For any consent to sin, contrition is required, even though it was never carried out by action. -Mat 5:28 Everyone who looks at a woman with lust has already committed adultery with her in his heart. It is all the more necessary for what is done in our rooms. -Rom 13:13 Not in reveling and drunkenness, not in debauchery and licentiousness. The dark and unclean heart of a sinner is the special room of spiritual dragons, that is, demons. The devil looked for that, as is said of Behemoth in Job 40:21 Under the lotus plants it lies, in the covert of the reeds and in the marsh. But by contrition he is thrown out, and what once was a room of demons becomes a room of virtues. -Isaiah 35:7 The haunt of jackals (dragons) shall become a swamp, the grass shall become reeds and rushes.
6. Offer up the sacrifice of justice,
Offer legitimate sacrifices
4:126.96.36.199 Here he gives a warning to do exterior penance, and says, "Resist this way interiorly and be sorry, but exteriorly let your repentance be perfected by offering a sacrifice of justice, sacrificing your very bodies by penance. -Rom 12:1 I appeal to you therefore, brothers and sisters, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God, which is your spiritual worship. -Rom 6:19 Just as you once presented your members as slaves to impurity and to greater and greater iniquity, so now present your members as slaves to righteousness for sanctification.
First offer the sacrifice of imperfect and elementary justice, which is that of repentance. This is symbolized by the new grains which were roasted and on the Passover offered to the Lord. Later on offer the sacrifice of perfect justice, which is symbolized by the sacrifice of new bread at Pentecost. On both of them, see Lev 23. Mary anointed the feet of the Lord, offering a sacrifice of imperfect justice (Luke 7:38). -Ps 50:14 Offer to God a sacrifice of thanksgiving. But when she anointed his head (Mat 26:7) she offered the sacrifice of perfect justice. The first sacrifice is a morning sacrifice, the second an evening sacrifice, which is the most pleasing to God.
Note that (1) there is the sacrifice of the heart -Ps 51:17 The sacrifice acceptable to God is a broken spirit. (2) And there is the sacrifice of the mouth -Ps 50:14 Offer to God a sacrifice of thanksgiving. -Hosea 14:2 Take away all guilt; accept that which is good, and we will offer the fruit of our lips. (3) And there is the sacrifice of deed, which is of two kinds: (3a) to offer oneself, that is, one's own body. On this, Gregory spoke of Mary Magdalene, "She offered her whole self as a holocaust, together with all the delightful things she had in herself." -Prov 3:9 Honor the Lord with your substance.
Note that when a sacrifice was offered, first the animal to be offered was set aside, then it was bound, then skinned, then washed, then cut into pieces, and finally offered on the altar. So anyone who offers himself in sacrifice must first separate himself from evil company. -Zech 2:6 Up, up! Flee from the land of the north, says the Lord. Secondly, he should bind himself with the precepts of obedience and the bonds of the counsels. -Ez 3:25 As for you, mortal, cords shall be placed on you, and you shall be bound with them. Then he must skin himself, removing bad behavior and bad habits. -Judith 10:3 She took off her widow's garments. -Col 4:22 Take off the old man, taking off previous bad behavior (4:8). Then he must wash himself by shedding tears. -Ps 6:6 Every night I flood my bed with tears. -Isaiah 1:16 Wash yourselves; make yourselves clean. Then he must be cut into pieces by dedicated all his members to the service of God. -Rom 6:19 As you once presented your members…… Then he must be placed on the altar of true faith, which is the only place an offering may be made. -Heb 11:6 Without faith it is impossible to please God. And he should do that by constantly keeping in mind the Lord's blessings. And thus he should be set on fire with fervent charity. -Lev 6:12 The fire on the altar shall be kept burning; it shall not go out.
and trust in the Lord:
and trust in Yahweh.
4:3.1.3 Thirdly there is the fruit or purpose of repentance, as if to say, "Be angry, be sorry, sacrifice, and now hope in the Lord." Otherwise he could not have hope. For hope is the expectation of future goods coming from merits and grace. So one must first change from evil to good, and be practiced in the good, and in that way a firm hope can be acquired. Therefore it is said, Isaiah 40:31 Those who wait for the Lord shall change their strength (Vul), by which they were running after evil, and put on a good strength. -Job 17:9 The righteous hold to their way, and they that have clean hands grow stronger and stronger.
many say, Who sheweth us good things?
Many keep saying, "Who will show us rain?
4:3.2 In the third part of the Psalm, after an exhortation to repentance, here the Psalmist presents the excuse of those who are perverse in evil. So he says, "I warn you to repent, but I hear many excuse themselves, being unwilling to convert because of the uncertainty of the good they are hoping for." Many say, not a few -Qohaleth 1:15 The number of stupid people is infinite. -Mat 20:16 Many are called, few are chosen - "Who will show us good things?", that is, eternal things which are to be hoped for by repentance. Wis 2:1 No one has been known to return from Hades. -Qohaleth 3:21 Who knows whether the human spirit goes upward and the spirit of animals goes downward to the earth? Gregory says, "The minds of carnal people cannot think of anything good except what they carnally see." The Psalm verse refers to good things simply and absolutely, because it is referring to eternal goods, which are simply and truly good. -Ex 33:19 I will make all my goodness pass before you.
7. The light of thy countenance, O Lord, is signed upon us:
the light of your face has fled from us, Yahweh."
4:188.8.131.52.1 In this third section of the third part of the Psalm, the Psalmist refutes the excuse or alleged impediment to conversion and repentance, and he makes three points: (1) First he says that he himself and other just men have within themselves a sure sign of eternal goods. (2) Secondly he shows the effect of this sign: "In peace". (3) Thirdly he shows how to attain the effect that was signified: "For you, O Lord". The first of these points establishes two things: (1) first that this sign is only in the just, (2) secondly why it is not in others: "By the fruit". The sign is twofold: (1) First he shows that he himself and others have been signed by illuminating grace. (2) Secondly, he shows that they have been covered with joy such as to excite their fervor: "You have given".
So he says, "Those people do not know eternal goods, but, O Lord, let them know and have no doubt that the light of your face, that is, illuminating grace coming from you and turning to us, has been signed on us, that is, has been impressed on and infused into our minds. -Eph 1:13 You were signed with the seal of the promised Holy Spirit. -4:30 Do not grieve the Holy Spirit of God, with which you were marked with a seal, not only exteriorly and in show, as the hypocrites, but exteriorly in deed and interiorly in the heart. -Cant 8:6 Set me as a seal upon your heart, as a seal upon your arm, so that we may be distinguished from the flock of the devil. -Rev 7:5 From the tribe of Judah twelve thousand were sealed.
thou hast given gladness in my heart.
Put happiness in my heart;
4:184.108.40.206.2 as if to say, "You not only make me shine with the light of grace, but also give me spiritual joy from purity of conscience, serenity, and a certain sense and knowledge of you." It is in my heart, that is through affection. -Phil 4:4 Rejoice in the Lord always; again I will say, Rejoice. -Isaiah 9:4 They rejoice before you as with joy at the harvest. This is the joy of the Precursor in the presence of the Virgin with the Son of God in her womb. -Luke 1:41 When Elizabeth heard Mary's greeting, the child leaped in her womb.
8. By the fruit of their corn, their wine, and oil, they rest:
now let their wheat and their wine increase.
4:220.127.116.11 Here he shows that the wicked are excluded from those good things, and why. So he says, "There is light in our intellect and joy in our affection, but this is not so with the wicked. For they are multiplied, that is, distracted and scattered from the fruit that is necessary for their food, the grain, for their drink, the wine, and for their condiment, the oil, and for that reason they are unable to receive this illumination and joy. -Ex 5:12 The people scattered throughout the land of Egypt, to gather stubble for straw. This is the deadly scattering and division spoken of in Hosea 10:2 Their heart is false (divided); now they must bear their guilt. Nor did he simply say they were multiplied from the fruit of grain, wine and oil, but added "his". For there are a grain, wine and oil that are best to desire, and these are (1) the grain of charity, spoken of in Zechariah 9:17 For what goodness and beauty are his, with grain, that is, of the elect, and (2) the wine of spiritual joy -Qoh 9:8 Do not let oil be lacking on your head, that is, spiritual joy in your heart. The wicked do not turn to or enjoy these things, but temporal decrepid things. -Wis 2:6 Come, therefore, let us enjoy the good things that exist……, costly wine and perfumes.
Note that there are four kinds of the spiritual grain that is mercy, which is talked of here: (1) Christ -John 12:24 Unless a grain of wheat falls into the earth and dies, it remains just a single grain etc. (2) Any righteous person -Isaiah 28:25 They plant wheat in rows and barley in its proper place(Vul: and millet), and spelt as the border. Here the wheat are the martyrs; the barley, which is stinging, are the confessors; the millet, which is little compared to wheat and barley, are the righteous successors of the preceding, but the spelt are those spoiled by sin, who will take over at the time of the AntiChrist. -The basis of this is Mat 3:12 He will gather his wheat into the granary, but the chaff he will burn with unquenchable fire. (3) The spiritual grain of understanding Sacred Scripture. This is the grain that Joseph distributed in Egypt (Gen 42-43) and that filled the sacks, that is, the hearts of the humble. -Gen 42:25 And Joseph gave orders to fill their bags with grain. (4) There is also the grain of the greatest charity, as was mentioned above, and also in Zach 9 and Ez 27:17 Judah and the land of Israel traded with you; they exchanged for your merchandise wheat.
9. In peace in the self same I will sleep, and I will rest:
In his peaceful presence, I shall lie down and sleep,
4:3.3.2 This is the effect consequent on the double sign [illuminating grace and joy], and it has four aspects: (1) security: in peace, (2) immutability: in the selfsame, quiet of the intellect: I will sleep, and of the affections: and rest.
So he says: These signs are in us and not in the evil. So the Psalmist is in peace and complete security, according to Isaiah 32:18 My people will abide in a peaceful habitation, and Psalm 147:12 He makes peace in your borders. He stands on his own, in no way changeable or variable, and that because of his being joined to the Unchangeable, who says of himself in Mal 3:6 I the Lord do not change, always remaining what he is, neither leaving something behind or becoming something new, but always remaining the same. -Ex 13:14 I am who I am.
I will sleep, while my intellect is in contemplation. -Cant 5:2 I slept, but my heart was awake. And I will rest, enjoying with my whole will and feelings, according to Rev 14:13 "Blessed indeed," says the Spirit, "that they may rest from their labors." This is the sleep and rest that Job desired (3:13): Then I should have lain down and been quiet; I should have slept; then I should have been at rest with kings and counselors. And this is the rest that the children of God have with him in the heavenly bedroom. -Luke 11:7 Do not bother me; the door is now shut, and my children are with me in bed.
The verse can also be read in the past, in this way: You shone your light in my mind; you gave me joy in my feelings. As a result, I sleep with my mind and I rest with my feelings, since I have you present, O God, and will have you more perfectly in yourself in the future age. For the saints rest in the peace of heart that God gives them. -John 14:27 Peace I leave with you; my peace I give to you. For they know that their spouse Christ rests I that peace, according to Psalm 76:2 His place has been established in peace (Vul). Therefore Gilbert says that the holy soul gladly rests where it finds its beloved, and that is in the place of peace. There hold onto the one your soul loves, or seek for him if he has left you. For in the bedroom and the secret peace of the mind he can be more freely searched for and more quickly found and more securely held. He can also be held for a longer time if one is able to remain longer in the delights that are usually absent in the beginning.
Note that there is such a thing as evil peace, and that is agreement to do evil. Of this the Lord said (Luke 12:51): Do you think that I have come to give peace on earth? No, I tell you, but rather division. And rest in sin is an evil peace.
This is the peace that the false prophets promised the people they had deceived. -Jer 8:11 They have healed the wound of my people lightly, saying, `Peace, peace,' when there is no peace. According to Augustine (De civitate Dei, 19:13), there are several kinds of good peace: (1) the peace of the body, which is the balanced temperature of the component parts of the body, (2) the peace of the irrational soul, which is the balanced tranquility of the natural appetites, (3) the peace of the rational soul, which is the balanced agreement of thought and action., (4) the peace of body and soul together, which is a balanced life and the health of the animating soul, (5) the peace of man to man, which is the balanced harmony of men for the purpose of good, (6) the peace of mortal man with the immortal God, which is balanced obedience in faith under the eternal law, (7) the peace of the heavenly society, which is the most balanced and harmonious association of those who enjoy God and one another in God, (8) the universal peace of all things, which is the tranquility of order, as established by the First Principle.
10. For thou, O Lord, singularly hast settled me in hope.
for you alone, Yahweh, make my repose secure.
4:3.3.3 Thirdly, he shows the cause and mode by which this peace follows from what has been said, since it comes from God to those who are established in a firm and stable hope. Whether by law, according to the first exposition, or automatically, this comes about in the following way: I possess security and immutability, mental quiet and peace of feelings, because you, Lord, have settled me, that is, firmly established me, singularly in hope, by letting me finally attain the one singular and eternal good, spoken of also in Psalm 27:4 One thing have I asked of Yahweh, that will I seek after, and Luke 10:42 one thing is needful. Saints and spiritual men seek and yearn for this one thing. But carnal people, whose minds are on these lower things, desire many different things. Therefore it is said about the Church in Psalm 63:1 My soul thirsts for you, thirsting for and desiring you alone. But how many different ways does my flesh desire you, that is, my carnal feelings, divided in so many directions.
This verse could be given another interpretation, so that I will sleep and rest in peace refers to the present, and in the selfsame refers to what will be had in the future. This fits in with the next line: Because you established me sigularly in hope, and hope does not disappoint. -Rom 5:5 Hop does not disappoint us. -Heb 6:19 We have this as a sure and steadfast anchor of the soul, a hope that enters into the inner shrine behind the curtain.