The Martyrology of the Sacred Order of Friars Preachers


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The First Day of July

The Octave of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist. A memory.

The Feast of the most Precious Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ. A totum duplex feast of the first class.

On Mount Hor, the death of St. Aaron, the first priest of the Levitical order.

At Vienne in Gaul, St. Martin, bishop, a disciple of the Apostles.

At Sinuessa in Campania (Italy), the holy martyrs Castus and Secundinus, bishops.

In Britain, the holy martyrs Julius and Aaron. They suffered after St. Alban in Diocletian's persecution. At the same place and time, very many, were tortured in various ways and savagely wounded, who thus attained by their struggle to the joys of the heavenly city.

In Auvergne in Gaul, St. Gal, bishop.

In the territory of Lyons, the death of St. Domitian, abbot. He first led the life of a hermit in that place. After gathering together many people, there in the service of God, and being famous for great virtues and glorious miracles, he was gathered to his fathers at a ripe old age.

At Angoulême in Gaul, St. Eparchius, abbot.

In the territory of Rheims, the priest St. Theodoric, who was a disciple of Blessed Rémy, the bishop.

At Amesa in Phoenicia, St. Simeon, confessor, surnamed Salus. (1) He became a fool for Christ's sake, but his deep wisdom God manifested with great miracles.

The Second Day of July

The Visitation of Blessed Virgin Mary to Elizabeth. A totum duplex feast of the second class.

At Rome, on the Via Aurelia, the birthday of the holy martyrs Processus and Martinian. They were baptized by St. Peter the Apostle in the Mamertine prison. Under Nero, they suffered beating on the face, the rack, whipping, beating with clubs, fire, and scorpions. Finally, they were crowned with martyrdom, being slain with the sword. A memory.

Likewise at Rome, the suffering of three holy soldiers. They were converted to Christ at the martyrdom of St. Paul the Apostle, and merited to become with him partakers of heavenly glory.

On the same day, the holy martyrs Aristo, Crescentian, Eutychian, Urban, Vitalis, Justus, Felicissimus, Felix, Marcia, and Symphorosa. All were crowned with martyrdom in Campania, while the persecution of the Emperor Diocletian was raging.

At Winchester in England, St. Swithin, bishop, whose holiness was shown by his miracles.

At Bamberg, St. Otho, bishop, who preached the Gospel to the people of Pomerania and converted them to the faith.

At Tours in Gaul, the death of St. Monegund, a religious woman.

The Third Day of July

At Rome, the birthday of St. Leo II, pope and confessor, who died rich in merit in the first year of his pontificate. A simplex feast.

At Chiusi in Etruria, the holy martyrs Irenaeus, deacon, and Mustiola, a matron. In the reign of the Emperor Aurelian, they were tortured in various cruel ways, and merited the crown of martyrdom.

At Alexandria, the holy martyrs Trypho and twelve others.

At Constantinople, SS. Eulogius and his companions, martyrs.

At Caesarea in Cappadocia, St. Hyacinth, the chamberlain of Trajan the Emperor. He was accused of being a Christian, afflicted with various punishments, and cast into prison, where he was starved to death.

On the same day, the holy martyrs Mark and Mucian. They were slain with the sword for Christ. When a little boy warned them with a loud voice not to sacrifice to idols, the lad was ordered to be scourged. As he then confessed Christ more vehemently, he was slain, together with one Paul who also was encouraging the martyrs.

At Laodicea in Syria, St. Anatolius, bishop, who left writings which are admired not only by churchmen but also by (pagan) philosophers.

At Altino near Venice, St. Heliodorus, bishop, famed for learning and sanctity.

At Ravenna, St. Dathus, bishop and confessor.

At Edessa in Mesopotamia, the transferal from India (of the relics) of St. Thomas the Apostle; the relics were afterward removed to Ortona among the Frentani. (2)

The Fourth Day of July

At Estremoz in Portugal, the birthday of St. Elizabeth, widow, Queen of Portugal. The Sovereign Pontiff, Urban VIII, knowing her renown for virtues and miracles, placed her among the number of the saints. Pope Innocent XII directed that her feast be celebrated on July 8.

The holy Prophets Osee and Aggaeus.

In the territory of Bourges, St. Laurian, Bishop of Seville and martyr, whose head was taken to Seville in Spain.

In Africa, the birthday of St. Jucundian, martyr. On account of his religion, he was cast into the sea and drowned.

At Sirmium, the martyrs SS. Innocent and Sebastia, and thirty others.

At Madaura in Africa, St. Namphanion, martyr, and his companions, whom he strengthened for the fight and led forth to the crown (of victory).

At Cyrene in Libya, St. Theodore, bishop. In the persecution of Diocletian, under the governor Dignian, he was beaten with leaden tipped whips, and his tongue was cut out. However, later on he died a peaceful, death as a confessor.

At Augsburg in Germany, St. Udalric, bishop, famed for the graces of wondrous abstinence, generosity, vigilance, and miracles.

At Tours in Gaul, the transferal of the relics of St. Martin, bishop and confessor, and the dedication of the basilica built in his name on this same day on which many years before he had been consecrated bishop.

The Fifth Day of July

At Cremona in Insubria, St. Antony Maria Zaccaria, confessor, founder of the Clerks Regular of St. Paul and also of the Angelical Virgins. He was celebrated for all virtues and for miracles, and Leo XIII inscribed him among the number of the saints. His body is honored in the church of St. Barnabas at Milan. A duplex feast.

At Rome, St. Zoe, martyr, wife of the blessed martyr Nicostratus. While praying at the tomb of the Apostle St. Peter, she was arrested by the persecutors under the Emperor Diocletian, and cast into a totally dark prison. Then she was hanged from a tree by her neck and her hair and suffocated by a fetid smoke. She died professing her faith in Christ.

At Jerusalem, St. Athanasius, deacon. For defending the holy Synod of Chalcedon, he was seized by the heretics, and after experiencing all manner of tortures, was at last slain by the sword.

In Syria, the birthday of St. Domitius, martyr, who by his miracles bestows many benefits on the people there.

In Sicily, the holy martyrs Agatho and Triphina.

At Tomis in Scythia, the holy martyrs Marinus, Theodotus, and Sedopha.

At Cyrene in Libya, St. Cyrilla, martyr. In the persecution of Diocletian, she held in her hand for a long time burning coals and incense that had been placed there, lest by casting down the coals she might seem to, offer incense. Lastly she was cruelly mangled and, adorned with her own blood, passed to her eternal Spouse.

At Treves, St. Numerian, bishop and confessor.

At Sanseverino in Piccno, St. Philomena, virgin.

The Sixth Day of July

The Octave of the holy Apostles Peter and Paul. A solemn octave.

At Jerusalem, St. Isaias the Prophet. Under King Manasses he was slain by being sawn asunder. He was buried under the oak of Rogel near the fountain.

At Fiesole in Tuscany, St. Romulus, bishop and martyr, a disciple of St. Peter the Apostle, who sent him to preach the Gospel. After he had announced Christ in many parts of Italy, he returned to Fiesole, and was crowned with martyrdom in the reign of Domitian, together with others who were his companions.

At Rome, the birthday of St. Tranquillinus, martyr, father of SS. Mark and Marcellian. He was converted to Christ by the preaching of St. Sebastian the martyr. He was baptized by the priest St. Polycarp, and ordained a priest by Pope St. Caius. In the reign of Diocletian he came to pray at the tomb of St. Paul on the octave day of the Apostles; he was seized by the heathens, and fulfilled his martyrdom by being stoned to death.

In Campania, St. Dominica, virgin and martyr. At the time of the Emperor Diocletian, she destroyed some idols; accordingly she was condemned to be thrown to the beasts. As they refused to harm her, she was beheaded and so went to the Lord. Her body is preserved with great honor at Tropea in Calabria.

On the same day, St. Lucy, martyr, who was a Campanian by birth. Arrested and severely tortured by Rixius Varus the acting-governor, she converted him to Christ. With her are remembered Antoninus, Severinus, Diodorus, Dion, and seventeen others, who were her companions in suffering and associates in her crown.

In the country of Treves, St. Goar, priest and confessor. +

The Seventh Day of July

At Perugia, Blessed Pope Benedict XI of Treviso, confessor, of the Order of Preachers. In the short space of his pontificate, he did much to promote peace for the Church, to restore discipline, and to increase religion to a wonderful degree. A duplex feast.

The holy Bishops Cyril and Methodius, whose birthdays are respectively February 14 and April 6.

At Rome, the holy martyrs Claudius, notary, Nicostratus, chief clerk and the husband of Blessed Zoe the martyr, Castorius, Victorinus, and Symphorian. St. Sebastian brought them to the faith of Christ, and the priest St. Polycarp baptized them. While they were occupied in recovering the bodies of the holy martyrs, the judge Fabian ordered them to be seized. After he had tried them for ten days with threats and flatteries and could not move them at all, he ordered them to be tortured on three (different) days and then cast headlong into the sea.

At Durazzo in Macedonia, the holy martyrs Peregrinus, Lucian, Pompey, Hesychius, Papius, Saturninus, and Germanus, natives of Italy. They fled to Durazzo in the persecution of Trajan, but seeing St. Astius the Bishop hanging there upon a cross for his faith, they openly confessed themselves Christians. At the governor's command they were arrested and drowned in the sea.

At Brescia, St. Apollonius, bishop and confessor.

At Eichstadt in Germany, St. Willibald, the first bishop of that city. He was the son of St. Richard the English King and the brother of St. Walburga, virgin. In company with St. Boniface he labored in preaching the Gospel and converted many tribes to Christ.

In Auvergne in Gaul, St. Illidius, bishop.

At Urgel in Aragon, St. Odo, bishop.

In England, St. Hedda, Bishop of the West Saxons.

At Alexandria, the birthday of St. Pantaenus, an apostolic man, and one adorned with all wisdom. He had such great zeal and love for the Word of God that, enkindled with the fire of faith and devotion, he went forth to preach Christ's Gospel even to the nations in the furthest corners of the East. Returning at last to Alexandria at the time of Antoninus Caracalla, he died in peace.

At Faremoutiers near Meaux, St. Ethelburga, abbess and virgin, daughter of an English king. (3)

The Eighth Day of July

St. Elizabeth, widow, Queen of Portugal, who went to a heavenly kingdom on July 4.

In Asia Minor, SS. Aquila and Priscilla his wife, of whom mention is made in the Acts of the Apostles. (4)

At Würzburg in Germany, St. Chilian, bishop. He was sent by the Roman Pontiff to preach the Gospel. After he had led many there to Christ, he was slain together with his companions, Colman, priest, and Totnan, deacon.

At Portus Romanus, fifty holy soldiers, martyrs, who were brought to the faith by the martyrdom of St. Bonosa. After being baptized by Blessed Pope Felix I, they were slain in the persecution of the Emperor Aurelian.

At Caesarea in Palestine, St. Procopius, martyr. He was brought from Scythopolis to Caesarea under the Emperor Diocletian and, at the firmness of his very first replies, was beheaded by the judge Fabian.

At Constantinople, the suffering of the holy Abrahamite monks who defended the veneration of holy images against the Emperor Theophilus, and so underwent martyrdom.

At Spina Lamberti in Emilia, Pope St. Hadrian III. He was famous for his zeal in reconciling the Easterns to the Roman Church, and wondrous for his miracles. His body was brought to the monastery of Nonantola, and buried with honor in the church of St. Silvester.

At Treves, St. Auspicius, bishop and confessor.

At Rome, Blessed Eugene III, pope. After ruling the monastery of SS. Vincent and Anastasius at Tre Fontane with great and praisworthy holiness and prudence, he was elected Sovereign Pontiff and governed the Universal Church in great sanctity. Pope Pius IX ratified and confirmed the cultus given to him from time immemorial.

The Ninth Day of July

At Briel in Holland, St. John of Cologne, of the Order of Preachers, and his companions of Gorcum. They suffered martyrdom because of their belief in the primacy of the Roman Church and in the presence of Christ in the Eucharist. A totum duplex feast of the second class.

At Rome, at the Ever-flowing Spring, (5) the birthday of the holy martyrs Zeno and ten thousand two hundred and three other Christians.

At Gortyna in Crete, St. Cyril, bishop, who was cast into the flames under the governor Lucius in Diocletian's persecution. He escaped unharmed although the ropes binding him took fire. He was dismissed by the judge, who was overcome with amazement at so great a miracle. But later, by reason of his continued and vigorous preaching of Christ, he was again arrested and beheaded by the same judge.

At Thora near Lakc Velino, the suffering of SS. Anatolia and Audax, under the Emperor Decius. After Anatolia, a virgin of Christ, had cured throughout the province of Piceno many who were laboring under various sicknesses, and had caused them to believe in Christ, she was subjected to various tortures by the command of the judge Faustinian. When she had been freed from a serpent that was set upon her, and converted Audax to the faith, at last, praying with outstretched hands, she was transfixed with a sword. Audax also was given into custody, and without delay was crowned by a capital punishment.

At Alexandria, the holy martyrs Patermuthius, Copres, and Alexander, who were slain under Julian the Apostate.

At Martula in Umbria, St. Brictius, bishop. He suffered much under the judge Marcian for confessing the Lord. Later on, after he had convertcd a great multitude of people to the faith, he died peacefully as a confessor.

At Tifernum in Umbria, St. Veronica Guilani, virgin. She was born in the town of Mercatello in the Diocese of Urbano, and became a nun of the Order of St. Francis, and Abbess of the convent of Tifernum. She was noted for her zeal for suffering and other virtues and for her heavenly gifts. She was inscribed in the list of holy virgins by Pope Gregory XVI. +

The Tenth Day of July

At Rome, the suffering of the seven martyred brothers, the sons of St. Felicitas, also a martyr, namely: Januarius, Felix, Philip, Silvanus, Alexander, Vitalis, and Martial. In the time of the Emperor Antoninus, under Publius, prefect of the city, Januarius, after being scourged with rods and imprisoned, was beaten to death with whips tipped with lead; Felix and Philip were beaten to death with clubs. Silvanus was thrown over a precipice; Alexander, Vitalis, and Martial were beheaded. A simplex feast.

Likewise at Rome, the holy virgins and martyrs Rufina and Secunda, sisters. They were subjected to torture in the persecution of Valerian and Gallienus, and at last went to Heaven, the one being beheaded by the sword and the other's throat being cut. Their bodies arc preserved with due honor in the Lateran basilica, near the baptistery.

In Africa, the holy martyrs Januarius, Marinus, Nabor, and Felix, who were beheaded.

At Nicopolis in Armenia, the holy martyrs Leontius, Maurice, Daniel, and their companions. They were tortured in various ways under the Emperor Licinius and the governor Lysias. At last, cast into the fire, they finished their course of martyrdom.

At Pisidia, the holy martyrs Bianor and Silvanus, who suffered most savage tortures for Christ. At length they were beheaded, receiving thus the crown of life.

At Iconium in Lycaonia, St. Apollonius, martyr, who gained an illustrious martyrdom on the cross.

At Ghent in Flanders, St. Amelberga, virgin.

The Eleventh Day of July

In Eastern Tonkin (Indo-China), the blessed martyrs Ignatius, Delgado, Dominic, and Henares, all bishops of the Order of Preachers. During the persecution of the tyrant Minh-ming, Blessed Ignatius was sentenced to be beheaded, but before the sentence was carried out he died, weakened by illness and exposure. There suffered in the same persecution twenty-four other martyrs of whom nine were Friars Preachers and eight were members of the Third Order of St. Dominic. A duplex feast.

At Rome, St. Pius I, pope and martyr. He was crowned with martyrdom in the persecution of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus.

At Bergamo (in Italy), St. John, bishop, who was slain by the Arians for defending the Catholic faith.

At Sida in Pamphylia, St. Cindeus, priest. At the time of Diocletian the Emperor and Stratonicus the governor, he was cast into the fire after many torments, but was unharmed (by the flames). At last, while in prayer, he gave up his soul to Cyod.

At Cordoba in Spain, St. Abundius, priest, who was crowned with martyrdom in the Arab persecution for preaching against Mohammedanism.

At Nicopolis in Armenia, the birthday of the holy martyrs Januarius and Pelagia. They were tortured for four days by the rack, iron claws, and potsherds, and thus gained martyrdom.

In the territory of Sens (in Gaul), St. Sidronius, martyr.

At Iconium in Lycaonia, St. Marcian, martyr, who passed through many torments to victory, under Perennius the governor.

At Brescia, the holy martyrs Savinus and Cyprian.

In the territory of Poitiers, St. Sabinus, confessor.

The Twelfth Day of July

In the monastery of Passignano, near Florence, St. John Gualbert, abbot, founder of the Order of Vallombrosa. A duplex feast.

At Lodi in Insubria, the holy martyrs Nabor and Felix. In the persecution of Maximian, they suffered martyrdom by being beheaded after various tortures. Their bodies were brought to Milan by Blessed Savina, and honorably buried there.

At Cyprus, Blessed Jason, an early disciple of Christ.

At Lucca in Tuscany, St. Paulinus, who was ordained the first bishop of that city by the Apostle St. Peter. Under Nero, he gained martyrdom with other companions, after many sufferings, at the foot of Mount Pisa.

At Aquileia, the birthday of St. Hermagoras, who was a disciple of St. Mark the Evangelist, and the first bishop of that city. Between performing miracles of healing, being diligent in preaching, and effecting the conversion of the people, he experienced many kinds of torture. Finally, with his deacon Fortunatus, he merited to obtain an unending triumph by undergoing capital punishment.

On the same day, the suffering of SS. Proclus and Hilarion. In the reign of the Emperor Trajan and the governor Maximus, he suffered the most atrocious torments to gain the palm of martyrdom.

At Toledo in Spain, St. Marciana, virgin and martyr, who was cast to the beasts for the faith and, being torn limb from limb by a bull, was crowned with martyrdom.

At Lentini in Sicily, St. Epiphana, who under the Emperor Diocletian and the governor Tertyllus suffered mutilation and gave up her soul to God.

At Lyons in Gaul, St. Viventiolus, bishop.

At Bologna, St. Paternian, bishop. + An Anniversary.

The Thirteenth Day of July

At Genoa (in Italy), Blessed James, of the Order of Preachers, Archbishop of Genoa. He became illustrious by reason of his learning, preaching, holiness, and the miracles he performed. A semi-duplex feast.

At Rome, St. Anacletus, pope and martyr, who ruled the Church of God after St. Clement, and adorned it with his glorious martyrdom.

At Bamberg, the birthday of St. Henry I, Emperor of the Romans, and confessor. He led a life of perpetual virginity with his wife St. Cunegund, and caused St. Stephen, King of Hungary, and almost all of his people to embrace the faith of Christ. His festival is, however, observed on July 15.

In Palestine, SS. Joel and Esdras, Prophets.

In Macedonia, Blessed Silas, who was one of the first converts. He was sent by the Apostles to the churches of the Gentiles together with Paul and Barnabas. Full of the grace of God, he readily carried out the office of preaching and, glorifying Christ in his sufferings, afterward died in peace.

Likewise, St. Scrapion, martyr, who under Severus the Emperor and Aquila the governor, passed through fire to the crown of martyrdom.

In the island of Chios, St. Myrope, martyr. At the time of the Emperor Decius and the governor Numerian, she was beaten to death with iron bars and so went to the Lord.

In Africa, the holy confessors Eugene, Bishop of Carthage, glorious for faith and virtues, and all the clergy of that Church, to the number of five hundred or more. They were destroyed by slaughter and famine in the Vandal persecution under the Arian king Hunneric. Rejoicing in the Lord, they were sent far away into cruel exile. Many among them were young children who performed the office of lectors. There were also among them two most noble persons, an archdeacon named Salutaris, and Muritta, second in the ministry. For the third time, these men professed the faith; they made themselves illustrious by their glorious perseverance in the faith of Christ.

In Brittany, St. Turian, bishop and confessor, a man of wondrous simplicity and innocence.

The Fourteenth Day of July

St. Bonaventure, of the Order of Friars Minor, cardinal and Bishop of Alba, confessor and Doctor of the Church. He passed to the Lord on July 15. A duplex feast.

At Rome, the birthday of St. Camillus of Lellis, priest and confessor,

and founder of the Clerks Regular for Ministering to the Sick. Famed for his miracles and virtues, the Sovereign Pontiff, Benedict XIV, canonized him, while Leo XIII declared him to be the heavenly patron of hospitals and the sick. His festival is, however, observed on July 18.

Also at Rome, St. Justus, a soldier under the tribune Claudius. When the cross miraculously appeared to him, he believed in Christ, was soon baptized, and bestowed all his goods on the poor. He was then arrested by Magnetius the prefect and ordered to be beaten with sinews, then to have a red-hot metal helmet placed on his head and to be cast upon a pyre. Although he was uninjured by the flames, he expired confessing the Lord.

At Sinope in Pontus, St. Phocas, martyr, bishop of that city. Under the Emperor Trajan he overcame for Christ imprisonment, chains, sword, and fire, and departed victorious to Heaven. His relics were taken to Vienne in Gaul, and buried in the Basilica of the Holy Apostles.

At Alexandria, St. Heracles, bishop. He enjoyed so lofty a reputation that Africanus the historian relates he hastened to Alexandria to see him.

At Carthage, St. Cyrus, bishop, on whose feast day St. Augustine delivered a panegyric on him to the people.

At Como, St. Felix, who was the first bishop of that city.

At Brescia, St. Optatian, bishop.

At Deventer in Belgium, St. Marcellinus, priest and confessor.

At Lima in Peru, St. Francis Solano, priest, of the Order of Friars Minor, and confessor. He died in the West Indies, illustrious for his preaching, miracles, and virtues. He was numbered among the saints by the Sovereign Pontiff, Benedict XIII. +

The Fifteenth Day of July

St. Henry I, Emperor of the Romans and confessor, whose birthday is noted on July 13. A simplex feast.

At Lyons in Gaul, the death of St. Bonaventurc, cardinal and Bishop of Alba, confessor and Doctor of the Church, of the Order of Friars Minor. He is well known because of his learning and holiness of life. His festival is, however, observed July 14.

At Pavia, St. Felix, bishop and martyr.

At Portus Romanus, the birthday of the holy martyrs Eutropius, and the sisters Zosima and Bonosa.

At Carthage, Blessed Catulinus, deacon, in the praise of whom St. Augustine delivered a panegyric to the faithful; also SS. Januarius, Florentius, Julia, and Justa, martyrs, who were buried in the Basilica of Faustus.

At Alexandria, the holy martyrs Philip, Zeno, Narseus, and ten children.

On the island of Tenedos, St. Abudemius, martyr, who suffered under Diocletian.

At Sebaste in Armenia, St. Antiochus, a doctor, who was beheaded under the governor Hadrian. When milk flowed forth from him in place of blood, (6) Cyriacus his executioner was converted to Christ, and suffered martyrdom himself.

At Nisibis in Mesopotamia, the birthday of St. James, bishop of that city, a man of great holiness. He was famous for miracles and learning, and was one of the confessors under Galerius Maximian, who in the Nicene Synod condemned the heresy of Arius in opposing the (doctrine of) Homoousian. (7) By his prayers and those of Bishop Alexander, Arius received at Constantinople the reward of his iniquity, for he died a miserable death.

At Naples in Campania, St. Athanasius, bishop of that city, who suffered much at the hands of his wicked nephew Sergius, and was driven from his see. Exhausted by his privations, he passed to Heaven at Veroli in the Hernican mountains in the time of Charles the Bald.

At Palermo, the finding of the body of St. Rosalie, a virgin of Palermo. It was found by divine revelation in the pontificate of Urban VIII and delivered Sicily from pestilence in the year of Jubilee.

The Sixteenth Day of July

The Feast of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel. A totum duplex feast.

At Sebaste in Armenia, the holy martyrs Athenogenes, bishop, and his ten disciples, under the Emperor Diocletian.

At Treves, St. Valentine, bishop and martyr.

At Cordoba in Spain, St. Sisenand, cleric and martyr, whose throat was cut by the Saracens because of his faith.

On the same day, the birthday of St. Faustus, martyr. He was crucified in the reign of the Emperor Decius and lingered for five days. At last he was pierced through with arrows, and passed into Heaven.

At Saintes in Gaul, the holy martyrs Reineldis, virgin, and her companions, who were slain by the barbarians because of their faith.

At Bergamo, St. Domnio, martyr.

At Antioch, the birthday of Blessed Eustace, bishop and confessor, famous for learning and holiness. Under the Arian Emperor Constantius, he was exiled for his defense of the Catholic faith to Trajanopolis in Thrace, and there died in the Lord.

At Capua, St. Vitalian, bishop and confessor.

At Ostia, the transferal of the body of St. Hilarinus, monk. He was arrested, together with St. Donatus, in the persecution of Julian, and since he would not sacrifice, was beaten with clubs. He underwent this martyrdom at Arezzo in Tuscany, on August 7.

The Seventeenth Day of July

At Wratislaw (in Poland), Blessed Ceslaus, confessor, of the Order of our Father St. Dominic. While at Rome, he received the religious habit from St. Dominic and strove to imitate his virtues. Aflame with zeal for the salvation of souls, he journeyed through all of Silesia on foot and, by his preaching and example, converted many from their errors to the true faith and led many sinners to repentance. A semi-duplex feast.

At Rome, St. Alexis, confessor, son of the Senator Euphemian. On the night of his nuptials, leaving his bride a virgin, he departed from his house. After long wandering, he returned to the city and remained unknown for seventeen years, dwelling in poverty in his father's house as a stranger, and so escaping the world by a new artifice. After his death he was made known both by a voice which was heard in the churches of the city, and by his writing. (8) In the reign of the Sovereign Pontiff, Innocent I, his body was borne with great honor to the Church of St. Boniface, where he is famous for many miracles.

At Carthage, the birthday of the holy martyrs of Scillium, Speratus, Narzal, Cythinus, Veturius, Felix, Acyllinus, Lactantius, Januaria, Generosa, Vestina, Donata, and Secunda. By command of the prefect Saturninus, after their first confession of Christ, they were cast into prison, then placed in stocks, and afterward beheaded by the sword. The relics of Speratus, together with the bones of St. Cyprian and the head of St. Pantaleon the martyr, were taken from Africa to Gaul, and honorably buried at Lyons in the Basilica of St. John the Baptist.

At Amastris in Paphlagonia, St. Hyacinth, martyr, who suffered much under the prefect Castritius, and died in prison.

At Tivoli, St. Generosus, martyr.

At Constantinople, St. Theodota, martyr, under Leo the Iconoclast.

At Rome, the death of St. Leo IV, pope.

At Pavia, St. Ennodius, confessor and bishop.

At Auxerre, St. Theodosius, bishop.

At Milan, St. Marcellina, virgin, sister of St. Ambrose, bishop. She received the veil of consecration at Rome from Pope Liberius in the Basilica of St. Peter. St. Ambrose in his writings also bore witness to her holiness.

At Venice, the transferal of the body of St. Marina, virgin.

The Eighteenth Day of July

St. Camillus de Lellis, priest and confessor, founder of the Clerks Regular Ministering to the Sick, the heavenly patron of hospitals and the sick, whose birthday is commemorated on July 14. A duplex feast.

At Tivoli, St. Symphorosa, wife of St. Getulius, martyr, together with her seven sons, Crescens, Julian, Nemesius, Primitivus, Justin, Stacteus, and Eugene. In the reign of the Emperor Hadrian, because of her insuperable constancy, the mother was scourged for a long time by stems of palm trees, then hung by the hair, and at last bound to a stone and cast into the river. Her sons were fixed to stakes and stretched by pulleys; they completed their martyrdom by various kinds of deaths. Their bodies were afterward taken to Rome, and in the pontificate of Pius IV were discovered in the deaconry of St. Angelo in Pescheria.

At Utrecht, St. Frederick, bishop and martyr.

At Silistria in Bulgaria, St. Emilian, martyr, who was cast into a furnace in the time of Julian the Apostate, under the governor Capitolinus, and received the palm of martyrdom.

At Carthage, St. Gundenes, virgin. Because she confessed Christ, she was tortured on four separate occasions by being stretched on the rack and by being terribly torn with hooks, by command of the proconsul Rufinus. She endured the filth of imprisonment for a long time, and at last was slain with the sword.

In Galicia in Spain, St. Marina, virgin and martyr.

At Milan, St. Maternus, bishop. In the reign of the Emperor Maximian, he was thrust down into (the lower) prison and frequently scourged for the faith and the Church committed to him. At length, renowned for his frequent witness to the truth, he died in the Lord.

At Brescia, the birthday of St. Philastrius, bishop of that city. He fought strongly by word and writing against the heretics, particularly the Arians, at whose hands he greatly suffered. At last, renowned for his miracles, he died a peaceful death, as a confessor.

At Metz in Gaul, St. Arnulf, bishop, who was famous for holiness and miracles, and after leading the life of a hermit, died a blessed death.

At Segni (in Italy), St. Bruno, bishop and confessor.

At Forlimpopoli in Emilia, St. Ruffillus, bishop of that city.

The Nineteenth Day of July

St. Vincent de Paul, priest and confessor, the founder of the Priests of the Congregation of the Mission and the Sisters of Charity. He is heavenly patron of all charitable organizations. He died in the Lord on September27. A duplex feast.

At Colossae in Phrygia, the birthday of St. Epaphras, whom St. Paul the Apostle calls his fellow-captive.(9) He was ordained Bishop of Colossae by that Apostle and, renowned for his merits, gained the palm of martyrdom for courageously defending the sheep committed to him. His body is buried at Rome in the Basilica of St. Mary Major.

At Treves, St. Martin, bishop and martyr.

At Seville in Spain, the suffering of the holy virgins justa and Rufina. For confessing the Lord, they were seized by Diogenian the prefect, and were first tortured by the rack and torn with hooks. Afterward they were afflicted with imprisonment, starvation, and various torments. At last Justa died in prison, while Rufina was strangled.

At Cordoba in Spain, St. Aura, virgin, the sister of the holy martyrs Adulphus and John. For a while she apostatised through the persuasion of a Mohammedan judge, but quickly repenting of what she had done, she overcame the enemy in a second contest by the shedding of her blood.

At Rome, St. Symmachus, pope, who, worn out at length by schismatical factions, passed to the Lord, remarkable for holiness.

At Verona, St. Felix, bishop.

At Skete, a mountain in Egypt, St. Arsenius, a deacon of the Roman Church. In the reign of Theodosius, he retired to the desert; there he died after having been enriched with the gift of tears and every virtue.

In Cappadocia, St. Macrina, virgin. She was the daughter of SS. Basil and Emmelia, and the sister of the holy Bishops, SS. Basil the Great, Gregory of Nyssa, and Peter of Sebaste.

The Twentieth Day of July

St. Jerome Emiliani, confessor, founder of the Congregation of Somascha. He died in the Lord on February 8. A duplex feast.

An Antioch, the suffering of St. Margaret, virgin and martyr. A memory.

On Mount Carmel, the blessed Prophet Elias.

In Judaea, the birthday of Blessed Joseph, called the Just. The Apostles appointed him, together with Blessed Matthias, to fill the place of the traitor Judas in the apostolate. Although the lot fell on Matthias, nevertheless Joseph gave himself up to the office of preaching and holiness, and sustained much persecution from the Jews for the faith of Christ, until his life came to a victorious end. It is related of him that he drank poison, and by reason of his faith in the Lord suffered no harm.

At Cordoba in Spain, St. Paul, deacon and martyr. He rebuked the heathen princes for Mohammedan impiety and cruelty and constantly preached Christ. By their command he was slain, thus passing to his reward in Heaven.

At Damascus, the holy martyrs Sabinus, Julian, Maximus, Macrobius, Cassia, and Paula, with ten others.

In Portugal, St. Wilgeforts, virgin and martyr, who defended her faith and her chastity, and thus merited to obtain a glorious triumph on the cross.

On the same day, the birthday of St. Flavian II, Bishop of Antioch, and St. Elias, Bishop of Jerusalem. They were driven into exile by the Emperor Anastasius for their defense of the Council of Chalcedon, and there as victors went to the Lord.

Near Boulogne in Gaul, St. Wulmar, abbot, a man of admirable sanctity.

At Treves, St. Severa, virgin. +

The Twenty-first Day of July

At Rome, St. Praxedes, virgin. She was brought up in all chastity and knowledge of the law of God. She passed her life devoted to vigils, prayer, and fasting, and gained eternal rest in Christ. She was buried near her sister Pudentiana on the Via Salaria. A feast of three lessons.

At Babylon, St. Daniel the Prophet.

At Comana in Armenia, St. Zoticus, bishop and martyr, who was crowned under Severus.

At Marseilles in Gaul, the birthday of St. Victor, soldier. He refused to perform military service or to offer sacrifice to idols, and was at first cast into prison, where he was visited by an angel; afterward he was punished with various tortures, and at last completed his martyrdom by being crushed by a millstone. There suffered also with him three other soldiers, Alexander, Felician, and Longinus.

At Troyes in Gaul, the suffering of SS. Claudius, Justus, Jucundius, and five companions, under the Emperor Aurelian.

In the same place, St. Julia, virgin and martyr.

At Strasbourg, St. Arbogast, bishop, noted for miracles.

In Syria, the monk St. John, who was a companion of St. Simeon.

The Twenty-second Day of July

At Marseilles in Gaul, the birthday of St. Mary Magdalene, out of whom the Lord cast seven devils. She merited to be the first who should see the Saviour Himself risen from the dead. A totum duplex feast of the second class.

At Philippi in Macedonia, St. Syntyche, whom St. Paul the Apostle mentions.(10)

At Ancyra in Galatia, the birthday of St. Plato, martyr. In the reign of Agrippinus Vicarius, he was scourged, torn with iron hooks, and tortured in other most savage ways. At last, his head being cut off, he rendered up his unconquered soul to God. The Acts of the Second Nicene Synod, bear witness to his miracles in helping captives.

In Cyprus, St. Theophilus the praetor. He was seized by the Arabs; as he could not be influenced either by gifts or by threats to deny Christ, he was slain with the sword.

At Antioch, St. Cyril, bishop, a man remarkable for learning and holiness.

At Menat near Auvergne, St. Meneleus, abbot.

In the monastery of Fontanelle in Gaul, St. Wandrille, abbot. He was, noted for his miracles. His body was later taken to the monastery of Blandin in Flanders.

At Lisbon in Portugal, St. Laurence of Brindisi, priest and confessor, minister-general of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin of St. Francis. Renowned for his preaching of the divine Word and his zealous deeds for God's glory, he was inscribed by the Sovereign Pontiff, Leo XIII, in the number of the saints.

At Scythopolis in Palestine, Count St. Joseph.

The Twenty-third Day of July

At Orvieto in Etruria (in Italy), Blessed Joan, commonly called Vanna,, virgin, of the Third Order of St. Dominic. She was illustrious for her singular innocence, her meditation on divine truth, and an abundance of heavenly gifts. A semi-duplex feast.

At Ravenna, the birthday of St. Apollinaris, bishop. He was ordained at Rome by St. Peter the Apostle and sent to Ravenna. He suffered varied and manifold punishments for the faith of Christ; afterward he preached the Gospel in Emilia and recalled many persons from idolatry. At last he returned to Ravenna, and under Vespasian Caesar gained a glorious martyrdom. A memory.

At Le Mans in Gaul, St. Liborius, bishop and confessor.

At Rome, the birthday of St. Bridget, widow. After many pilgrimages to the holy places, she died filled with the spirit of God. Her feast is kept on October 8.

At the same place, St. Rasyphus, martyr.

Also at Rome, the suffering of St. Primitiva, virgin and martyr.

Likewise, the holy martyrs Apollonius and Eugene.

On the same day, the birthday of the holy martyrs Trophimus and Theophilus. In the reign of the Emperor Diocletian, they were stoned and tortured with fire. At last, put to the sword, they were crowned with martyrdom.

In Bulgaria, many holy martyrs. The wicked Emperor Nicephorus, who laid waste the churches of God, caused them to be slain by various kinds of deaths: by the sword, by the rope, by arrows, by long imprisonment, and by starvation.

At Rome, the holy virgins Romula, Redempta, and Herundo, of whom Pope St. Gregory has written.

The Twenty-fourth Day of July

The Vigil of St. James the Apostle.

At Piedmont (Italy), Blessed Augustine of Biella, confessor, of our Order. He was outstanding by the admirable sanctity of his life and by his exhausting labors in the work of the ministry. With the praise of the Lord lovingly on his lips, he expired at Venice. A semi-duplex feast.

At Tyro on Lake Bolsena in Tuscany, St. Christina, virgin and martyr. This virgin, believing in Christ, broke the gold and silver idols of her father and gave the pieces to the poor. At her father's command, she was torn with scourges, subjected to other cruel tortures, and cast into the lake with a huge stone fastened to her. However, she was rescued by an angel. Under another judge, who succeeded her father, she courageously underwent even more atrocious tortures. Finally, after she had been shut up by the governor Julian for five days in a burning furnace without any injury, and after being protected by the power of Christ from the sting of serpents, she ended her martyrdom by having her tongue cut out and by being pierced with arrows. A memory.

At Rome, on the Via Tiburtina, St. Vincent, martyr.

At Amitemo, among the Vestinians, (11) the suffering of eighty-three holy soldiers.

At Merida in Spain, St. Victor, soldier. In the persecution of Diocletian, he gained martyrdom by means of various tortures with his two brothers Stercatius and Antinogenes.

Likewise, the holy martyrs Meneus and Capiton.

In Lycia, the holy martyrs Niceta and Aquilina. They were converted to Christ by the preaching of blessed Christopher, martyr, and obtained the palm of martyrdom by being beheaded.

At Sens (in Gaul), St. Ursicinus, bishop and confessor.

The Twenty-fifth Day of July

St. James the Apostle, who was the brother of Blessed John the Evangelist. He was beheaded by Herod Agrippa about Easter time, being the first of the Apostles to receive the crown of martyrdom. His holy bones were taken on this day from Jerusalem to Spain, and buried in the remotest part of that country, in Galicia. There they are religiously venerated with great honor by the people and by the great concourse of Christians who go there to perform their religious duties and vows. A totum duplex feast of the second class.

In Lycia, St. Christopher, martyr. In the reign of Decius, he was beaten with iron rods and was preserved by the power of Christ from being burned in raging flames. At last, pierced through with arrow-wounds, he was beheaded, thus completing his martyrdom. A memory.

At Barcelona in Spain, the birthday of blessed Cucuphas, martyr. In the persecution of Diocletian under the governor Dacian, he overcame many torments and at last passed victoriously to Heaven by being beheaded. A memory.

In Palestine, St. Paul, martyr. Under the governor Firmilian, in the persecution of Maximian Galerius, he was condemned to death. Asking a little time for prayer, he besought God with all his heart for his fellow-sufferers, then for the Jews and Gentiles, that they might know the true faith, for the multitude that stood around, and lastly for the judge who had condemned him and the executioner who was to slay him. Then he was beheaded and so received the crown of martyrdom.

At Forcino among the Vestinians, the holy martyrs Florentius and Felix, both of Siponte.

At Cordoba in Spain, St. Theodemir, monk and martyr.

In Palestine, St. Valentina, virgin. When she was brought to an altar to offer sacrifice, she overturned it with her feet. She was terribly tortured and, being cast into the fire together with another virgin, her companion, hastened to her heavenly Spouse.

At Treves, St. Magnericus, bishop and confessor.

The Twenty-sixth Day of July

The death of St. Anne, mother of the Immaculate Virgin Mary, the Mother of God. A totum duplex feast of the second class.

At Philippi in Macedonia, the birthday of St. Erastus, who was left there as bishop by St. Paul the Apostle, and there crowned with martyrdom.

At Rome, on the Via Latina, the holy martyrs Symphronius, Olympius, Thcodulus, and Exuperia, who, as is read in the Acts of Pope St. Stephen, were burned alive and so obtained the martyr's palm.

At Portus Romanus, the holy martyr Hyacinth. He was first cast into the fire and then into a river, but escaped unharmed. Afterward, Leontius, who had been consul under the Emperor Trajan, ordered him beheaded, and so ended his life. The matron Julia buried his body on her farm near Rome.

At Verona, St. Valens, bishop and confessor.

At Rome, St. Pastor, a priest in whose name a legal title is extant at St. Pudentiana's on the Viminal Hill. (12)

In the monastery of St. Benedict in the country of Mantua, St. Simeon, monk and hermit, who, famed for many miracles, died at a good old age,

The Twenty-seventh Day of July

In the kingdom of Tonkin, the blessed martyrs Joseph Maria Sanjurjo and Melchior Sampedro, both bishops; and their twenty-three companions. Although they died in different years, all endured many tortures for the faith of Christ, and all received the glorious pahn of martyrdom. A duplex feast.

At Bisceglia in Apulia (Italy), the holy martyrs Maurus, bishop, Pantaleon, and Sergius, who suffered under Trajan.

At Nicomedia, St. Hermolaus, priest, by whose teaching Blessed Pantaleon was converted to the faith. Also SS. Hermippus and Hermocrates, brothers. After many tortures inflicted on them by the same Maximian for their confession of Christ, they were put to death.

At Cordoba in Spain, the holy martyrs, George, deacon, Aurelius and his wife Natalia, Felix and his wife Liliosa, in the Arab persecution.

At Nola in Campania (Italy), the martyrs SS. Felix, Julia, and Jucunda.

Among the Homerites in Arabia, (13) the commemoration of the holy martyrs who because of their Christian faith were delivered to the fire under the tyrant Dunaan.

At Ephesus, the birthday of the Seven Sleepers, SS. Maximian, Malchus, Martinian, Dionysius, John, Serapion, and Constantine.

At Rome, Pope St. Celestine I, who condemned Nestorius, Bishop of Constantinople, and put Pelagius to flight. By his command the holy Universal Council of Ephesus was held to condemn the same Nestorius.

At Auxerre, the death of blessed Aetherius, bishop and confessor.

At Constantinople, blessed Anthusa, virgin, who was scourged under Constantine Copronymus for her veneration of holy images. Being sent into exile, she died in the Lord. +

The Twenty-eighth Day of July

In the town of San Germano of the diocese of Vercelli (Italy), Blessed Anthony della Chiesa, of the Order of Preachers, a man distinguished for his holiness, character, devotion, and knowledge. A semi-duplex feast.

At Nicomedia, the suffering of St. Pantaleon, a physician. Because of his Christian faith, he was imprisoned by the Emperor Maximian and tortured by the punishment of the rack and by burning with torches. Amidst these sufferings he was refreshed by the Lord appearing to him. At last, his martyrdom was ended by the sword.

At Milan, the birthday of SS. Nazarius and the boy Celsus, martyrs. Anolinus, in the raging persecution aroused by Nero, ordered them to be maltreated and afflicted for a long time in prison, and then slain with the sword. A memory.

At Rome, the suffering of St. Victor I, pope and martyr.

(Likewise at Rome), St. Innocent I, pope and confessor, who died in the Lord on March 12.

In the Thebaid in Egypt, the commemoration of many holy martyrs who suffered in the persecution of Decius and Valerian. The crafty enemy, seeing that the Christians desired to be slain with the sword for Christ, devised for them punishments which would ensure a slow death, being desirous rather of slaying their souls than their bodies. Among the number (of Christians) was one who, after he had endured the rack, burning torches and gridirons, was bound with his hands behind his back, anointed with honey, and exposed in the hot sun to the torture of ants and flies. Another was fastened in a wanton position among flowers, but when a shameless woman approached him to lure him to sin, he bit through his tongue and spat it forth in her face.

At Amcyra in Galatia, St. Eustathius, martyr. He was subjected to various kinds of torments and cast into a river, from which he was delivered by an angel. Then a dove came to him from heaven to call him to everlasting rewards.

At Miletus in Armenia, St. Achatius, martyr, who under the Emperor Licinius, after various punishments, was cast into a furnace. Being preserved unhurt by God's help, he fulfilled his martyrdom by being beheaded.

In Brittany, St. Sampson, bishop and confessor.

At Lyons in Gaul, St. Peregrinus, priest, whose blessedness is declared by glorious miracles.

The Twenty-ninth Day of July

At Tarascon, in the province of Narbonne in Gaul, St. Martha, virgin, the hostess of our Saviour, and the sister of SS. Mary Magdalene and Lazarus. A simple feast.

At Rome, on the Via Aurelia, St. Felix II, pope and martyr. He was removed from his see by the Arian Emperor Constantius for his defense of the Catholic faith, and secretly put to the sword at Cera in Tuscany, meeting with a glorious death. His body was taken thence by the clergy, and buried on the Via Aurelia. Afterward it was removed to the Church of SS. Cosmas and Damian. There it was found under the altar by the Sovereign Pontiff, Gregory XIII, together with the relics of the holy martyrs, Mark, Marcellian, and Tranquillinus. It was again buried in the same place, together with the other relics, on July 31. In that altar were found also the bodies of SS. Abundius, priest, and Abundantius, deacon, both martyrs. Not long after, these were removed to the Church of the Jesuits on the day before their birthday.

Likewise at Rome, on the Via Portuensis, the holy martyrs Simplicius, Faustinus, and Beatrice, in the time of the Emperor Diocletian. The two former, after many and varied tortures, were ordered to undergo capital punishment; Beatrice, their sister, was strangled in prison for confessing Christ. A memory.

At Rome likewise, the holy martyrs Lucilla and Flora, virgins, Eugene, Antoninus, Theodore, and eighteen of their companions, who suffered martyrdom under the Emperor Gallienus.

Also at Rome, St. Serapia, virgin. In the reign of Emperor Hadrian, she was handed over to two evil young men. She could not be corrupted by them, nor could she afterward be injured by flaming torches. By command of the judge Derillus she was scourged and then beheaded with the sword. Her body was buried by St. Sabina in her own tomb near the Vindician field, but the memory of her martyrdom is kept more especially on September 3, on which day their common tomb was finished, adorned, and consecrated as a fitting place of prayer.

At Gangra in Paphlagonia, St. Callinicus, martyr. He was scourged with iron rods and subjected to other tortures. Last of all, when cast into a furnace, he rendered up his spirit to God.

In Norway, St. Olaf, king and martyr.

At Troyes in Gaul, St. Lupus, bishop and confessor, who went forth with St. Germanus to combat the Pelagian heresy in Britain. By his fervent prayer he defended the town of Troyes from the fury of Attila, when he was laying waste to all Gaul. At last, after fulfilling worthily the office of the priesthood for fifty-two years, he died in peace.

In the city of St. Brieuc in Gaul, St. William, bishop and confessor.

Likewise, the death of Blessed Prosper, Bishop of Orleans.

At Todi in Umbria, St. Faustinus, confessor.

In the city of Mamia, St. Seraphina.

At Rome, Blessed Urban II, pope, who followed the policy of St. Gregory VII. He was resplendent for his zeal for learning and religion. He aroused the faithful to be crusaders and recover the holy places of Palestine from the power of the infidels. The Sovereign Pontiff, Leo XIII, ratified and confirmed the cult given him from time immemorial. +

The Thirtieth Day of July

At Calaruega in Spain, Blessed Mannes, brother of our Father St. Dominic. He possessed sincerity and simplicity to a high degree, and was devoted to contemplation. Rich in merit and renowned for his miracles, he died a holy death in the Cistercian monastery of St. Peter at Gamiel. A duplex feast.

At Rome, the holy martyrs Abdon and Sennen, Persians. Under the Emperor Decius, they were brought to Rome bound in chains, and for the Christian faith were first scourged with leaden tipped whips and then slain with the sword. A memory.

At Assisi in Umbria, St. Rufinus, martyr.

At Tuburbe in Africa, the holy virgins and martyrs Maxima, Donatilla, and Secunda. In the persecution of Valerian and Gallienus, Maxima and Donatilla were forced to drink vinegar and gall and were then severely beaten. They were tortured on the rack, burnt on gridirons, and then rubbed with lime. Afterward, they were thrown to the beasts, along with Secunda, a girl of twelve years of age. As the beasts did not harm them, all three were slain by the sword.

At Caesarea in Cappadocia, St. Julitta, martyr. She went to law to recover her goods from an influential man who had defrauded her. He maintained that since she was a Christian she ought not to be heard. She was immediately ordered by the judge to offer incense to idols, so that she might present her case. She firmly refused. Being cast into the flames, she rendered up her soul to God, but her body remained unhurt by the fire. St. Basil the Great has celebrated the excellence of her glory in a beautiful eulogy.

At Auxerre, St. Ursus, bishop and confessor.

The Thirty-first Day of July

At Rome, the birthday of St. Ignatius, priest and confessor, founder of the Society of Jesus, famous for holiness and miracles, and most zealous for the propagation everywhere of the Catholic religion. A duplex feast.

At Milan, St. Calimcrius, bishop and martyr. He was seized in the persecution of Antonius, repeatedly stabbed, and his neck was run through with a sword. Flung headlong into a well, he completed the course of his martyrdom.

At Caesarea in Mauretania, the suffering of Blessed Fabius, martyr. He refused to carry the pagan ensign of the governor, and was cast in prison for some days. On being interrogated several times, he remained unmoved in confessing Christ, and was condemned by the judge to capital punishment.

At Synnada in Phrygia, the holy martyrs Democritus, Secundus and Dionysius.

In Syria, three hundred and fifty holy martyrs, monks, who, because they defended the Synod of Chalcedon, were slain by heretics.

At Ravenna, the passing of St. Germanus, Bishop of Auxerre. He was noble in birth, faith, learning, and glorious miracles, and he completely freed Britain from the heresy of the Pelagians. A memory.

At Tegaste in Africa, St. Firmus, bishop, celebrated for his glorious confession of faith.

At Siena in Tuscany, the birthday of Blessed John of Colombino, founder of the Congregation of the Jesuates, and famous for his holiness and miracles.


1. The Martyrology evidently accepts the meaning of Salus in Syriac to be "mad." The saint deliberately acted as if he were lacking in sense.

2. The Frentani were an ancient Italian tribe of Samnite origin, dwelling along the Adriatic coast northwest of Apulia.

3. She was the daughter of Erconbert, King of the East Angles.

4. Acts, 18:18, 26.

5. Now called Tre Fontane.

6. This absurd statement is taken from the so-called "Acts" of the saint; they are worthless from the standpoint of historical accuracy.

7. Homoousian is the word used by the Fathers of Niacea to express the truth that the Son is one God with the Father. This doctrine is against the heresy of Arius.

8. This fanciful story rests on no solid foundations. There was a St. Alexis who lived and died at Edessa; no further details are known of him.

9. Colossians, 1:7, 4:12; Philemon, 5:23.

10. Mark, 16:9; Philippians, 4:2.

11. See note for May 20.

12. See note for June 20.

13. They are usually called Himyarites. They lived in southwestern Arabia and are said to have been named after a king called Himyar.