Summmer 1983, Vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 141-154.

Freda Mary Oben:
      Edith Stein: Holiness in the Twentieth Century

In the life, achievements, and death of Edith Stein, God's grace of holiness was manifested in a woman deeply involved in this century's movements and events.

Dr. Oben, her husband, and five children are Jewish converts. A member of the Dominican Laity, Dr. Oben is translating Edith Stein's Die Frau for publication.

TO be a child of God, Scripture teaches, is to be holy as our heavenly Father is holy. The truth that holiness is the highest human vocation was lived completely by Edith Stein, the German Jewish philosopher who became a Catholic in 1922, a Carmelite in 1933, and a martyr at Auschwitz in 1942.

When she was an atheist, she had been confronted with the phenomenon of Christ's incarnation. She discovered the experience of Christ incarnate in her personal conversion. A spiritual writer of great power, she sought the root of divine life within, and she gives us an ontology of the spirit. Terming us "creatures of a spiritual condition," she maintains that we must understand the essence of our own spirit in order to understand all other phenomena.

She teaches us who strive for Christian authenticity how to imitate our Lord by cooperation in his redemptive action. In keeping with her concept of coresponsibility, she stresses that each Christian is called upon to act as coredeemer. Her life shows the power of God within us to do so. Moreover, her holiness demonstrates the fulfillment of Judaism by Christianity and the unity of the two faiths. Stein's unique spirituality lies in the unshakable truth that the Old Covenant is fulfilled in the New.

Edith Stein was born on October 12, 1891, in Breslau, Germany. The family belonged to the middle class; her father owned a lumberyard. Edith was the youngest of eleven children, of whom only seven had survived. When she was not quite two years old, her father died. Her mother took charge of the family business. But Frau Stein was the great love and central developing force in Edith's childhood. Throughout her life, Edith retained her great love and respect for her mother. Indeed, her mother was, for Edith, ever the image of the religious woman.

Yet, despite this example, Edith Stein admitted that, through her teens and until she was twenty-one, she was not able to believe in a personal God. In the summer of 1913 she attended the University of Go*ttingen, where she studied under Edmund Husserl. His new philosophical school of "phenomenology" attempted to describe the structure and essence of all phenomena, calling itself pure philosophy and the basis of all science. This was a time of religious revival, and the new discipline of phenomenological investigation became a tool in the search of spirituality. Many phenomenologists were Jewish, and their investigations led them into Christianity. Edith Stein's atheism was challenged by the phenomenological ideal of objective clarity. Her friend and colleague Hedwig Conrad-Martius described that challenge in these words: "Can [the scientist] even take the responsibility not to come to terms with the problem of the existence of a thing which has suddenly appeared in a very impressional sense as able to exist?"(1)

Edith Stein was also affected by the personal spirituality of two teachers, Max Scheler and Adolph Reinach. In the summer of 1914, when war broke out, Reinach left to serve in the German army. He was baptized as a Protestant while serving in the army. He was killed in 1916. During the War, Edith served for six months at Weisskirchen Hospital, nursing Austrian soldiers infected with contagious diseases.

After she received her doctorate, magna cum laude, studying under Husserl, the widow of Adolph Reinach asked her to arrange her husband's papers. When Edith arrived she found a strong woman able to console rather than one who needed consolation. That strength came from Frau Reinach's faith, for she too had converted. It is at this point that Edith Stein ends her autobiography, From the Life of a Jewish Family.

Husserl had invited Edith Stein, upon the completion of her doctoral program, to become his first assistant at the University of Freiburg, where he had just been granted a chair in phenomenology. She assisted him for eighteen months, teaching his new students, transcribing and editing his notes for publication. She also wrote and published articles herself, such as "Psychic Causality" and "The Individual and the Community." But in 1918, disappointed in her post, she left.


Attempts to get another university position failed, probably because there were few women in the university system at that time, either as students or as teachers. She spent the next few months at the family home in Breslau, where the drama of her conversion began to develop. The total conversion did not take place until 1921 when she was staying, for eighteen months, with her friend, Hedwig Conrad-Martius.

Hedwig and her husband led a life of strict austerity in keeping with their religious ideals. Many phenomenologists came to their farm to gather fruit and to talk philosophy. Hedwig writes that Edith, who was always quiet, was at this time especially reserved. Edith Stein alludes to the miracle of her conversion as "my secret for me alone" ("secreturn meum mihi"), though she tells us that full acceptance came after a night spent reading the autobiography of St. Teresa of Avila. Caught up in the mystic's expose* of experienced faith, she read without stopping. With dawn she closed the book and said: "That is the truth."(2)

She was baptized on January 1, 1922. Her spiritual director, Canon Schwind of Speyer, suggested that she teach at St. Mary Magdalene, the oldest Dominican cloister in Germany. There she became a "Dominican amongst the Dominican."(3) She taught high school girls, the postulants, and the nuns preparing to teach. She was unofficially considered to be the novice mistress. She read the office daily and took private vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. Consequently, she accepted no reimbursement other than her food, lodging, and clothing which the nuns made for her.

The Dominican ties were of great importance to her now as she abandoned herself to the God of pure truth. Her intellect, enlightened by faith, became a means to serve God and to be united to him in pure surrender. She tells us that after her conversion she desired to study the intellectual foundation of Catholicism. Her desire was soon fulfilled. At the suggestion of the Jesuit philosopher-theologian, Eric Przywara, she translated writings of John Henry Newman for an edition that Father Przywara was preparing. He followed this with the suggestion that she translate St. Thomas Aquinas's De Veritate, for there was as yet no German edition of that text. Her work was not only a translation but a phenomenological commentary on Thomistic metaphysics, considered to be an important contribution to neoscholastic thought. It made her famous throughout Germany. At Speyer she also wrote her comparative analysis, Husserl's Phenomenology and the Philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas. It proved to be an important seminal work in the interrelationship between the two schools. In 1932, at a conference on this subject, held in Juvisy, she was the only woman present; her work and comments made a great impression on all participants.

But also to be recognized is the great impact which Stein had on her students at St. Magdalene. Her personality had undergone a great change after her conversion. She writes that as a young girl of twenty, no one could tell her anything and she always took the prerogative of a critical view concerning others. But now she exemplified to her students the spiritual maternity which she terms the greatest gift of each woman, married or single. They describe her as gentle, patient, modest, loving, humble, happy, lovable, serene, balanced, charitable, holy. Her being radiated saintliness, yet she was a down-to-earth woman who loved life and people and affected all with her gaiety and charm.

Edith Stein writes that God is the supreme educator and Christ the ideal personality and perfect gestalt by which the human person is to be formed. She was particularly concerned with the formation of the woman, that she fulfill her nature and destiny. The great number of women's social, political, and cultural groups at this time in Germany evidence a high tide in feminism. Edith Stein became "the voice of Catholic feminism." Giving lectures in cities throughout Europe from 1928 to 1932, she was called the voice and "hope" of Catholic Germany. These lectures were later published as The Woman (Die Frau).

When she gave these lectures, Edith was in her thirties. This small, thin, low-voiced, and amazingly modest woman held large groups spellbound. Dark, with large brown-grey eyes, an expansive forehead denoting great intellect, a strong dimpled chin expressive of an inexorable will, she was declared unforgettable. Because she was in such great demand as a speaker, her life became too strenuous and she left her teaching post at St. Magdalene in 1931.

Back with her family in Breslau, she continued work on her unpublished manuscript Act and Potency, which provided the basis for her most important text later published as Finite and Eternal Being (Endliches and Ewiges Sein). But when she was asked in the spring of 1932 to establish a new program for the education of young women at the German Institute for Scientific Pedagogy, she accepted. Her career there was short-lived. Although the institute was subsidized by societies of Catholic teachers, her "Jewish" presence was an embarrassment after Hitler became Reichskanzler on January 30. Although she stayed on during the summer, her last lecture was on February 25, 1933. She writes later of these last days at Mu*nster: "But now on a sudden it was luminously clear to me that once again God's hand lay heavy on His people, and that the destiny of this people was my own."(4)

Would Pope Pius XI write an encyclical letter on behalf of the Jews? When she learned that she could not have a private audience, she wrote a letter to the pope. It was personally delivered, along with a warm endorsement, by her spiritual director, Raphael Walzer, Abbot of Beuron, in April. In reply, Edith received the Holy Father's blessing for her and her family.


The spring of 1933 could easily be called a crisis in Edith Stein's life, one which she herself describes in an essay, "The Road to Carmel." Describing an hour of prayer on the eve of April's first Friday at the Cologne Carmel, which she was soon to enter, she writes: "I spoke to our Savior and told Him that I knew that it was His cross which was now being laid on the Jewish people. Most of them did not understand it; but those who did understand must accept it willingly in the name of all."(5) At the end of April and after thirteen straight hours of prayer, she made her decision to enter Carmel and to refuse a teaching post in South America, where her brother Arno lived. Now at last she was justified in leaving worldly duties and family for the religious life, a desire she had been denied since her conversion. It was her belief that the Carmelite order excelled in a free and joyous participation in Christ's redemptive action. Edith Stein entered the Mary Queen of Peace Carmel on the eve of its founder's feast day. St. Teresa of Avila had led her home.

Her investiture the following April was attended by many notables of academia, science, and the church. As her religious name she adopted one which clearly shows the history of her spiritual development: Sister Teresia Benedicta of the Cross. Her friends were struck by her transformation. Hedwig writes that Edith had always been childlike and amiable, but now she was enchanting in her childlike laughter and happiness. The distinguished author Gertrud von le Fort writes that to have then seen the face of Sister Teresia Benedicta of the Cross was to remember it always; only twice in her life had she experienced the impression of looking at a saint -- with Edith Stein and with Pope Pius X.

When her superior advised her to return to intellectual work, her first undertaking was her autobiography. For this she had a dual motivation: she wanted to honor her mother, on whose memories shared with her she relied heavily; and she wanted to present the true nature of Jewish humanity and spirituality to the young Nazis being taught to hate the Jews through a false stereotype. Although she had already lost her vote and the right to publish as early as 1935, she completed her text Finite and Eternal Being. This was later acclaimed as a work which could renew Catholic philosophy by its phenomenological method; not only Husserl but Aristotle, Plato, St. Thomas Aquinas, St. Augustine, and Duns Scotus underlay her analysis.

Her intention of participating in Christ's redemptive action became ever more penetrated by her own Gethsemane. On Good Friday of 1938, she writes in a poem that those whom Mary chooses as companions must stand with her at the foot of the cross to purchase new life for souls. In a letter of October 31, she writes that, like Queen Esther who was also singled out from amongst the Jews to plead to the king for her people, she also will plead for her people to the heavenly king. On Kristallnacht of November 9, synagogues and Jewish businesses were destroyed, and thirty to forty thousand Jews sent to concentration camps. The Carmelites now feared for Stein's safety, while she feared for the Carmel endangered by her presence. On December 31, she fled from Germany to the Carmel in Echt, Holland.

News of Nazi atrocities reached the nuns in their enclosure. Even by 1939 these were horrifying. Through her notes and writings of 1939 we know that Edith Stein knew and suffered intensely because of the agony of her people. After her arrest, the nuns found in her cell a card on the back of which was written her offering of self "as a sacrificial expiation for the sake of true peace: that the Antichrist's sway may be broken, if possible without another world war, and that a new order may be established."(6) This offering was made to the Heart of Jesus on Passion Sunday. On the feast of Corpus Christi in June she drew up her last will, concluding with joyful acceptance of her death foreordained by God, for the sake of God's glory, the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary, the intention of Holy Church, the deliverance of Germany and world peace, and for her family, living and dead.

The very human anguish she expresses in a poem written about this time reveals, however, a loneliness like that of Christ's in the garden. She asks that God bless the deeply burdened spirit destitute of peace and overcome by loneliness and inexpressible grief. On September 14, the feast of the Exaltation of the Cross, she wrote the passionate essay "Hail Cross, Our Only Hope": the person torn by others' misery can yet be one with Christ as he soothes, heals, and redeems, for compassionate love is also the love of the divine heart and its precious blood.

In the summer of 1940, Stein's sister Rosa came to the Carmel to be with her sister and to serve as portress. This noble woman had become a Catholic in 1936; she would have wished to become a religious now, but this was impossible because the Germans had invaded the Netherlands in May, 1940. By 1941, both sisters had to wear the yellow "star of David" with the inscription "Jude" ("Jew").

In 1941, Edith Stein was asked to write a study of St. John of the Cross to commemorate his four hundredth anniversary. The fruit of her labor is The Science of the Cross (Kreuzeswissenschaft), upon which she worked until her arrest. In perfect self-discipline, she retired even more within, all her faculties devoted to her work despite all personal anguish. The content of her text becomes descriptive of her own spiritual journey as well as a brilliant analysis of the mystic's works: The Ascent of Mt. Carmel, The Dark Night of the Soul, "The Spiritual Canticle" and "The Living Flame of Love." The spirituality described at the end of part two was now hers: "Thus, the bridal union of the soul with God, for which it is created, is purchased through the cross, perfected with the cross, and sealed for all eternity with the cross."(7)

On July 26, 1942, the Dutch bishops issued a pastoral letter condemning the deportation of the Jews; it was read from every pulpit in the Netherlands. In retaliation, the Nazi authorities, on August 2, 1942, ordered the arrest of 1,200 Catholics of Jewish "blood," religious as well as laity. Edith and Rosa Stein had been awaiting daily for word from the LePaquier Carmel in Switzerland that they might be accepted into that neutral country. But their arrest came just a few days before the letter of acceptance arrived. Appeals to the Swiss consul at the Hague were fruitless.

During the first week of August, the two sisters, Edith and Rosa, were at two concentration camps in the Netherlands, Amersfoort and Westerbork. Many witnesses have testified to the great love which Edith Stein exercised among the prisoners struck down by their misery. Described as an "angel," she calmed and comforted the women, washed and fed the children. Her being radiated serenity.

Rosa was also strong and helpful. Yet a released prisoner described the expression on Edith's face as she looked upon her sister in her plight as that of "a Pieta* without Christ." But the crucified Christ was in her heart. Her compassion was not only for her sister, not only for the prisoners, but for all crucified humanity.

From Westerbork, the prison-train rolled across Germany. It is believed that upon their arrival at Auschwitz on August 9, Edith and Rosa were led directly to the gas chambers.


Edith Stein's offering was made possible, not only by her complete devotion to God, but also by an utter childlike trust in his providence. She was convinced that her life unto eternity was foreseen by God's plan. She writes that she rejoices in the light of glory which would lift the veil for her and she would at last understand the connection of meaning in all details of this plan.

St. Paul tells us that Israel's rejection of Christ as their Messiah was permitted by God: he allowed the Jews not to accept the faith so that it would go beyond them to the Gentiles. Christianity is the "wild olive shoot"grafted onto the tree of Israel, benefitting from its sap and sustained by its root. Yet, in God's mercy, Jew and Christian will be reconciled as one people, and this will usher in the kingdom of God (Rom. 9-11). Indeed, Christ has already reconciled Jew and gentile by the cross, creating from both the new man in his peace (Eph. 2:14-16).

Léon Bloy took Christ's words "Salvation is from the Jews" (John 4:22) as the title of his passionate text Le Salut par les Juifs. In Jacques Maritain's preface to the 1905 edition, he writes: "From its first line, Le Salut par les Juifs, which might be taken for a paraphrase of this chapter of St. Paul, points out that the Blood which was shed upon the Cross for the redemption of humanity, like that which is poured out invisibly, every day, in the Chalice of the Holy Sacrament, is naturally and supernaturally Jewish Blood which has its source in Abraham and its mouth in the Five Wounds of Christ."(8) Edith Stein knew that her faith was possible only because the Old Covenant is fulfilled in the New. She becomes a symbol of this unity and a sign of his plan.

How close she must have felt to Mary whose spirituality is so essentially Jewish! For it was the full heart of a Jewish maiden which sang out joyful gratitude to God: "He has given help to Israel his servant, mindful of his mercy, as he promised our fathers, toward Abraham and his descendants forever." Stein holds our Lady up as the prototype of the purely developed feminine nature; she is our model as the instrument of Christ's redeeming love. Woman's imitation of Mary is the decisive factor in her search for fulfillment. Like Mary in spiritual maternity, she is in collaboration with Mary wherever she is functioning authentically as a woman. And although she is equipped to do anything a man can do, the woman's specific role both at home and in the market place is especially directed to nourish the humanity in others.

She was happy to be bound in blood to our Lord, as well as to our Lady, whose Jewishness in origin, life-style, mentality, and ethics has been described by many. It is also well accepted that Christian liturgy and prayer are closely related to Jewish customs and Scripture. The reading of the psalms was always great pleasure to Edith Stein, and even her mother was highly edified when she used the Roman breviary to follow the very psalms being sung in the synagogue.

In her essay "The Prayer of the Church," Edith Stein gives an exciting account of Christ's institution of the Eucharist, relating this to traditional Jewish prayer.

We know from the Gospel accounts that Christ prayed as a believing Jew and faithful follower of the Law used to pray . . . . His last meeting with His disciples was devoted to the fulfillment of the most sacred religious duties, the solemn paschal meal by which the deliverance from the bondage of Egypt was commemorated. The New Testament account of it shows that He recited the ancient prayers of blessing which are still said today over bread, wine, and the fruits of the field: "Praised be Thou, Eternal One, our God, King of the world, who bringest forth bread out of the earth, . . . who didst create the fruit of the wine.

And while they were at supper, Jesus took bread and blessed and broke and gave to his disciples and said: Take ye and eat. This is my body. And taking the chalice, he gave thanks and gave to them, saying: Drink ye all of this. For this is my blood of the new testament, which shall be shed for many unto remission of sins (Matt. 26:26-28).(9)

It is most fitting that Edith Stein was baptized on the feast day of Our Lord's Circumcision, at that time celebrated on January 1. God's mandate of circumcision symbolizes the bond between him and Israel and also the incorporation of the male child into the Jewish community of the faithful. By her baptism, Edith was deepening the Old Covenant within herself, and, as every Jewish convert believes, she was not leaving Judaism but rather penetrating into it with greater fidelity.

But of her whole family, only Rosa understood this. It is ironic that Edith's anguish was intensified by the terrible loneliness stemming from lack of understanding by her family. Her conversion had been most painful to them, but her entrance into Carmel at the very time of the Holocaust was to them unbelievable. How could they understand that it was their very suffering that had led her into Carmel? But this was all part of her personal, unique cross. For her redemptive role was unique in its duality: as a Jew she suffered for her people and as a Christian she imitated Christ her Lord, united to him as he suffered for Jews and gentiles.


Edith Stein writes that she cannot believe that any human being is excluded from redemption by the visible limits of the Catholic church. Rather, she believes that Christ lives constantly in his members and continues to suffer in them. Hence Jews are also part of the mystical body of Christ, and the persecution of the Jews is a continuation of Christ's crucifixion in time, a continuation of his crucified humanity.

Many of the Jewish people, Edith Stein among them, believed that the Holocaust had come as a punishment for humanity's sins. Edith's immolation of self was payment of a price necessary for the forgiveness of sins. Not only was this in imitation of Christ; redemption is a long-standing element of faith recognized by Jewish ritual. As we know, Jesus was redeemed, like all firstborn sons, by his parents' offering -- of two doves, because of their poverty.

St. John of the Cross taught that "God sustains and is present substantially in every soul, even that of the worst sinner."(10) In keeping with this doctrine, Edith prayed for the Nazis. She emphasized the responsibility of each individual for society; she wrote that all are responsible for the salvation of all.

The prophets' call for social justice had been extended by rabbinical teaching to the concept of "mitzvah," the charitable act which transforms worship from sacrifice to the personal priestly act of love and compassion. So can we look upon our Lord as having performed the supreme mitzvah of all time. Edith's prayer, writings, and final martyrdom stand as mitzvoth for us all in imitation of Christ. At the very time that National Socialism declared the supremacy of one race, the Aryan, Edith offered herself for all humanity. Hence she becomes an ecumenical symbol par excellence. Her image is stronger than all barriers erected between races, religions, and nationalities.

Edith Stein is a Jewish heroine as well as a saintly Christian. She pitted herself against the forces of evil like the great Hebrew women we find in Scripture: Deborah, Ruth, Esther, Judith, and, above all, Mary. She is revealed to us as an instrument of God's redeeming love. A German priest once said to this writer: "Edith is good for Germany -- she confronts us with our conscience." Max Scheler has written that a saint influences even an enemy to the good? Thus of Stein it can be said: "Say to Wisdom, you are my sister" (Prov. 7:4).

She is a most rare combination of intellectual and mystic. As such, she functioned on the highest level of awareness. The intentionality of her consciousness was directed to the most pure and elevated reality -- God.

God is the supreme educator, yet the individual has the power to cooperate in the formation of his or her soul. In Finite and Eternal Being, she describes a long known spiritual phenomenon which has recently become quite popular -- living in one's center. One can experience mystically what faith teaches -- the indwelling of God in the soul. This inner experience and perception empowers the individual with the spiritual strength which can be used freely and is a source of powerful influence on others. Indeed, it is only the one who does live in the temple of his or her own interior being who has this strength and can exercise right judgment. And in her essay "Sancta Discretio," Edith Stein names the Benedictine precept of discretio perspicua ("unpretentiousness, reticence, right moderation") as an element of the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit. Discretion is present only in the soul quickened by the Holy Spirit, who teaches how to search honestly, listen humbly, and adore thankfully.

We are asked to surrender self in complete self-abandon in order to be united to Christ and to cooperate in his redemptive action. In her essay "The Prayer of the Church," Edith Stein writes that this is accomplished in prayer filled with Christ's priestly love. This mystical stream of prayer is the lifeblood of the church and helps to achieve the ultimate salvation of the world. We read here: "In the solitary conversation of consecrated souls there are prepared those widely visible events of the Church's history that renew the face of the earth."(11) Mary and women like her (surely we may add here Edith Stein herself) are able to be his instruments by forgetting themselves completely in contemplation of Christ's passion.

Not only is the child of God bent on union with God, but he or she lovingly seeks union in God with brothers and sisters of the mystical body of Christ. In her essay "The Mystery of Christmas," Edith Stein differentiates between supernatural love, which wants others for God, and natural love, which seeks only to possess the other. According to her own definition of love as a "self-bestowing goodness," a desire to share self with others for their happiness, she herself is described by her friend Hedwig as inexhaustible in self-giving: she was always present to others in their need. In Finite and Eternal Being, she writes of the being of the three divine Persons. She defines the divine Spirit as the utterly "selfless" which is made manifest, rather than lost, in the surrender of each divine Person to the other. Creatures' spirituality, although different, must enter into this realm of generous love. And the three fundamental forms of the human being are related to the triune Being: psychical being to God the Father, corporal being to God the Son, and spiritual being to God the Holy Spirit.

The Christian finds both strength and joy in the science of the Cross. To be free and happy is to do God's will and to keep his commandments. This also means to share in both Christ's human and divine life: "Every man must suffer and die. But if he is a living member of the Body of Christ, his suffering and death will receive redemptive power from the divinity of the Head. This is the objective reason why all the saints have desired to suffer."(12)

We can be reasonably confident that her last moment of life in the gas chamber was an apex of pure love, perfect self-surrender, supreme self-giving. In her poem addressed to the Holy Spirit, she had declared in mystical, untranslatable terms that her entire being is enclosed in the chamber of the Holy Spirit. Her greatest joy had been to await the vision which was to come, and, surely, when the veil was rent asunder by her martyrdom, she stepped from finite to infinite sainthood. Her search for Truth was finally ended as she stood in the light of his glory. She now knows the meaning of her life and the details in his plan. In spite of all the horror and anguish, her life and death testify that God's love is supreme: we who seek to live his divine life may joyously celebrate with her the risen Christ.

When Max Scheler was delivering his lectures "The Essence of Holiness" at Go*ttingen, how could he have known that a possible future saint of the twentieth century was in attendance? He does not write about Edith Stein in The Saint, the Genius, the Hero, yet what he has written on the nature of sainthood is an indirect testimonial to his former pupil.(13)

Saints carry the message of God's unique being and essence and are uniquely united to that being and essence. They wish to live the spiritual life which was Christ's during his historical existence. They want Christ's life to permeate their own personality and existence. They yearn to make a leap into the center of Christ's personality -- to take possession of his central operating thrust -- so that all their own contingent acts will be nourished by his center. The saints become living mirrors of the Model. They in turn influence other individuals' spiritual development and even the salvation of society. We dare to say that this describes Edith Stein.

  1. Hedwig Conrad-Martius, "Edith Stein," Hochland 51 (October 1958): 39-40.
  2. Sister Teresia Renata de Spiritu Sancto Posselt, Edith Stein, trans. Cecily Hastings and Donald Nicholl (New York: Sheed and Ward, 1952), p. 64.
  3. Erich Przywara, In und Gegen (Nürnberg: Glock and Lutz, 1955), p. 64.
  4. Posselt, p. 117.
  5. Ibid., p. 118.
  6. Ibid., p. 212.
  7. Edith Stein, The Science of the Cross, trans. Hilda Graef (Chicago: Henry Regnery Co., 1960), p. 241.
  8. Albert Béguin, Léon Bloy, trans. Edith M. Riley (London: Sheed and Ward, 1947), pp. 112-113.
  9. Edith Stein, Writings of Edith Stein, ed. and trans. Hilda Graef (Westminster: The Newman Press, 1956), pp. 32-33.
  10. Karol Wojtyla, Faith According to St. John of the Cross, trans. Jordan Aumann (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1981), p. 49.
  11. Stein, Writings, p. 40.
  12. Ibid., p. 28.
  13. Max Scheler, Vorbilder and Führer (Berlin, 1933), French translation: Le saint le genie le héros, tr. Emile Marney (Fribourg Suisse: Egloff, 1944), pp. 73-106.